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Taxodium distichum - Nyssa aquatica - Acer rubrum / Itea virginica Floodplain Forest
Translated Name: Bald-cypress - Water Tupelo - Red Maple / Virginia Sweetspire Floodplain Forest
Common Name: Southern Coastal Plain Bald-cypress - Tupelo Swamp Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007422
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association includes seasonally flooded swamps dominated by Taxodium distichum with Nyssa aquatica and other hardwood species, especially Acer rubrum and Ulmus americana. Shrub species which may be present include Itea virginica and Clethra alnifolia (within its range). Cover of the herbaceous stratum varies from sparse to moderate and is often characterized by Saururus cernuus and may also include Boehmeria cylindrica, Sagittaria latifolia, and Smilax spp. In the Mississippi River Alluvial Plain and Gulf Coastal Plain, this community primarily occurs in sloughs which flood for 3-4 months annually.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: This type includes data from Savannah River Site, inner Coastal Plain of South Carolina (after Jones et al. 1981b; Bald cypress-water gum-mixed hardwood community; 5 stands sampled). There are also data from the Kisatchie National Forest (Allen 1993c). No occurrences are known with dominant Itea virginica shrub layer in eastern Texas, but it may be possible (R. Turner pers. comm.). Taxodium distichum - Nyssa aquatica / Fraxinus caroliniana Floodplain Forest (CEGL007431) is similar, but apparently the conceptual difference is that CEGL007431 is semipermanently flooded while this association (CEGL007422) is seasonally flooded.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Floodplain Forest
Group Bald-cypress - Tupelo Floodplain Forest
Alliance Southern Bald-cypress - Tupelo Floodplain Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002419 Nyssa aquatica Swamp Forest
CEGL002420 Taxodium distichum / Lemna minor Floodplain Forest
CEGL002421 Taxodium distichum - (Nyssa aquatica) / Forestiera acuminata - Planera aquatica Floodplain Forest
CEGL007390 Nyssa biflora - Quercus laurifolia / Sphagnum spp. Riparian Forest
CEGL007429 Nyssa aquatica - Nyssa biflora Swamp Forest
CEGL007431 Taxodium distichum - Nyssa aquatica / Fraxinus caroliniana Floodplain Forest
CEGL007719 Taxodium distichum - Fraxinus pennsylvanica - Quercus laurifolia / Acer rubrum / Saururus cernuus Floodplain Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Taxodium distichum - Nyssa aquatica - Acer rubrum / Itea virginica Forest Equivalent Certain ALNHP unpubl. data
Kentucky Cypress (Tupelo) Swamp Broader   Evans 1991
Louisiana Baldcypress Swamp Intersects   Smith 1996
Louisiana Baldcypress-Tupelo Swamp Intersects   Smith 1996
Mississippi Bald Cypress - Water Tupelo Swamp Undetermined   Wieland 1994
Tennessee Taxodium distichum - Nyssa aquatica - Acer rubrum / Itea virginica Forest Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data
Texas Taxodium distichum - Nyssa aquatica - Acer rubrum / Itea virginica Forest Equivalent Certain TNHS unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Bald cypress-water gum-mixed hardwood community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Jones, S. M., D. H. Van Lear, and S. K. Cox. 1981b. Major forest community types of the Savannah River Plant: A field guide. USDE Savannah River Plant, National Environmental Research Park Program. Report No. SRO-NERP-9. 79 pp. plus 24 illustrations.
Related Concept Name: Baldcypress - Tupelo: 102
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: Baldcypress - Water Tupelo (67)
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: USFS [U.S. Forest Service]. 1988. Silvicultural examination and prescription field book. USDA Forest Service, Southern Region. Atlanta, GA. 35 pp.
Related Concept Name: Baldcypress-Water Tupelo Series
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Diamond, D. D. 1993. Classification of the plant communities of Texas (series level). Unpublished document. Texas Natural Heritage Program, Austin. 25 pp.
Related Concept Name: Cypress (Tupelo) Swamp
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Evans, M. 1991. Kentucky ecological communities. Draft report to the Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission. 19 pp.
Related Concept Name: Cypress Swamp
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Smith, L. M., compiler. 1996a. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 2 pp.
Related Concept Name: Cypress Swamps, Cypress-Blackgum Phase
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Clewell, A. F. 1971. The vegetation of the Apalachicola National Forest: An ecological perspective. Unpublished document. USDA Forest Service, Tallahassee, FL. 152 pp.
Related Concept Name: Cypress-Tupelo Swamp
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Smith, L. M., compiler. 1996a. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 2 pp.
Related Concept Name: IIA4b. Bald Cypress - Water Tupelo Swamp
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Palustrine Taxodium distichum-Nyssa spp. Series
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Pyne, M. 1994. Tennessee natural communities. Unpublished document. Tennessee Department of Conservation, Ecology Service Division, Nashville. 7 pp.
Related Concept Name: Very Wet Areas
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Allen, C. M. 1993b. Ecological assessment of the Cunningham Brake Research Natural Area in the Kisatchie National Forest, Louisiana. Unpublished report. Northeast Louisiana University, Department of Biology. 50 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.065 Red River Large Floodplain Forest
CES203.066 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest
CES203.488 West Gulf Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest
CES203.490 Mississippi River Bottomland Depression
CES203.493 Southern Coastal Plain Blackwater River Floodplain Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4? (15Aug1997)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, AR, KY, LA, MS, SC, TN, TX
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is found in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains from South Carolina south to Alabama and west to Louisiana and presumably Texas and in the interior to Kentucky and Arkansas.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Middle Coastal Plains, Western Section
Section Code: 231E Occurrence Status: Possible
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Louisiana Coast Prairies and Marshes Section
Section Code: 232E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Western Gulf Section
Section Code: 232F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Lower Mississippi Riverine Forest Province
Province Code: 234 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Mississippi Alluvial Basin Section
Section Code: 234A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This swamp forest has a canopy dominated by Taxodium distichum, Nyssa aquatica, and Acer rubrum var. drummondii. Associated canopy species include Styrax americanus, Fraxinus caroliniana, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus phellos, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Ulmus rubra, Ulmus alata, Nyssa biflora, and Quercus laurifolia. This is typically a closed-canopy community, with cover ranging approximately between 60-100%, but most often 80-90%. The sparse to patchy tall-shrub stratum (2-5 m in height) includes Itea virginica, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Diospyros virginiana, Forestiera acuminata, Ilex decidua, and Carpinus caroliniana. In the Kisatchie National Forest, Itea virginica has a frequency of 50% in occurrences. The short-shrub stratum (0.5-2 m in height; mean cover of 13%) is dominated by Acer rubrum, Itea virginica, Taxodium distichum, and Nyssa aquatica. Associates include Styrax americanus, Ulmus alata, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Rubus argutus, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Quercus spp., Diospyros virginiana, Quercus lyrata, Ilex decidua, Liquidambar styraciflua, Forestiera acuminata, Celtis laevigata, Fraxinus caroliniana, Carpinus caroliniana, Triadica sebifera (= Sapium sebiferum) (exotic), Rubus trivialis, Carya aquatica, Nyssa biflora, Crataegus viridis, and Quercus phellos. The mixed graminoid-forb herbaceous layer (mean cover 33%) is dominated by Triadenum tubulosum, Triadenum virginicum, Carex atlantica, Saururus cernuus, and Gratiola virginiana. Associates include Boehmeria cylindrica, Justicia ovata var. lanceolata, Polygonum punctatum, Proserpinaca palustris, Carex joorii, Peltandra virginica, Lycopus rubellus, Mikania scandens, Leersia virginica, Lysimachia radicans, Carex intumescens, Spiranthes cernua, Carex tribuloides, Hydrocotyle verticillata, Viola spp., Panicum rigidulum, Rhynchospora corniculata, Ludwigia glandulosa, Osmunda regalis, Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (= Aster lateriflorus), Carex flaccosperma, Commelina virginica, Leersia lenticularis, Bidens mitis, Carex lupulina, Carex louisianica, Penthorum sedoides, Pluchea camphorata, and Cyperus virens. Minor associates (each with cover less than 1%) include Acmella oppositifolia var. repens, Carex lonchocarpa, Onoclea sensibilis, Acalypha rhomboidea (= Acalypha virginica var. rhomboidea), Pilea pumila, Lobelia cardinalis, Sagittaria platyphylla, Dichanthelium dichotomum var. dichotomum, Carex bromoides, Mimulus alatus, Hydrolea uniflora, Juncus effusus, Micranthemum umbrosum, Mitchella repens, Elephantopus carolinianus, Helenium flexuosum, Poa autumnalis, Woodwardia areolata, Asclepias perennis, Juncus diffusissimus, Phanopyrum gymnocarpon, Cerastium glomeratum, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Erigeron philadelphicus, Ageratina altissima var. altissima, Hypericum mutilum, Dichanthelium commutatum, Sphenopholis obtusata, and Spirodela polyrrhiza. Sphagnum spp. are not significant in this community. Within their ranges Tillandsia usneoides and Pleopeltis polypodioides ssp. polypodioides are present on canopy trees and woody shrubs (Martin and Smith 1991, Allen 1993c). Triphora trianthophora may occur in Louisiana examples of this community, although this species is more typical of mesic slope forests (Allen 1995c).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum var. drummondii G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Fraxinus caroliniana G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Fraxinus pennsylvanica G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Liquidambar styraciflua G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Nyssa aquatica G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Nyssa biflora G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus phellos G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Triadica sebifera G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Ulmus alata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Ulmus rubra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus laurifolia G4 Broad-leaved evergreen tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Taxodium distichum G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Carpinus caroliniana G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Carya aquatica G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Celtis laevigata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Crataegus viridis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Forestiera acuminata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Rubus trivialis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Cephalanthus occidentalis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Ilex decidua G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Styrax americanus G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Itea virginica G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Rubus argutus G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Bidens mitis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Boehmeria cylindrica G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Commelina virginica G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Gratiola virginiana G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Hydrocotyle verticillata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Justicia ovata var. lanceolata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Ludwigia glandulosa G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lycopus rubellus G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lysimachia radicans G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Mikania scandens G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Peltandra virginica G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Penthorum sedoides G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Pluchea camphorata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Polygonum punctatum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Saururus cernuus G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Spiranthes cernua G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Triadenum tubulosum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Triadenum virginicum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Triphora trianthophora G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Osmunda regalis G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex atlantica G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex flaccosperma G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex intumescens G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex joorii G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex louisianica G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex lupulina G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex tribuloides G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Leersia lenticularis G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Leersia virginica G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Panicum rigidulum G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Rhynchospora corniculata G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Proserpinaca palustris G4 Aquatic herb Submerged aquatic    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Triphora trianthophora
  (Nodding Pogonia)
G3G4  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association includes seasonally flooded swamps. In the Mississippi River Alluvial Plain and Gulf Coastal Plain, this community primarily occurs in sloughs which flood for 3-4 months annually. This community occurs primarily in sloughs which receive annual flooding for approximately 3 or 4 months. The acidic clay soils are very poorly drained and very slowly permeable; the Yorktown series (Typic Fluvaquent) is commonly associated with this community in Louisiana. Slopes are typically less than 1%, and the high water table is within 15 cm of the soils surface throughout the year in most years (Soil Conservation Service 1990, L. Smith pers. comm. 1995). Stands assigned here from the Savannah River Plant (South Carolina) are in "floodplains which are flooded most of the year" (Jones et al. 1981b).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Hydrologic fluctuation is the main disturbance in this community and the primary ecological factor affecting the species composition and structure. The water budget of alluvial cypress swamp systems includes surface flow, groundwater inflow, precipitation throughfall, flooding, evapotranspiration, interception loss, and surface and subsurface outflow into the river channel. Hydrologic inflows are predominantly runoff from surrounding uplands and overflow of the flooding river. Flooding generally accounts for less than 50% of the total annual water input. Seasonal pulses of floods bring in water and nutrient-rich sediments (Mitsch and Gosselink 1993).

As this community matures, the relative abundance of Acer rubrum var. drummondii may decrease, with the canopy becoming increasingly dominated by Taxodium distichum and Nyssa aquatica.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): S. Landaal, mod. J.E. Mohan and L.M. Smith, mod. M. Pyne
Element Description Edition Date: 23May2002
Element Description Author(s): J.E. Mohan, S. Landaal and M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • ALNHP [Alabama Natural Heritage Program]. No date. Unpublished data on file. Alabama Natural Heritage Program, Auburn University.

  • Allan, J. D., and A. S. Flecker. 1993. Biodiversity conservation in running waters: Identifying the major factors that threaten destruction of riverine species and ecosystems. BioScience 43:32-43.

  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Allen, C. 1993c. Ecological assessment of the forest vegetation of Keiffer Prairie Research Natural Area in the Kisatchie National Forest. Unpublished report. USDA Forest Service, Kisatchie National Forest, and Northeast Louisiana University, Alexandria. 60 pp.

  • Allen, C. M. 1993b. Ecological assessment of the Cunningham Brake Research Natural Area in the Kisatchie National Forest, Louisiana. Unpublished report. Northeast Louisiana University, Department of Biology. 50 pp.

  • Clewell, A. F. 1971. The vegetation of the Apalachicola National Forest: An ecological perspective. Unpublished document. USDA Forest Service, Tallahassee, FL. 152 pp.

  • Diamond, D. D. 1993. Classification of the plant communities of Texas (series level). Unpublished document. Texas Natural Heritage Program, Austin. 25 pp.

  • Evans, M. 1991. Kentucky ecological communities. Draft report to the Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission. 19 pp.

  • Evans, M., B. Yahn, and M. Hines. Kentucky ecological communities. 2009. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, KY.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Jones, S. M., D. H. Van Lear, and S. K. Cox. 1981b. Major forest community types of the Savannah River Plant: A field guide. USDE Savannah River Plant, National Environmental Research Park Program. Report No. SRO-NERP-9. 79 pp. plus 24 illustrations.

  • LNHP [Louisiana Natural Heritage Program]. 2009. Natural communities of Louisiana. Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, Louisiana Department of Wildlife & Fisheries, Baton Rouge. 46 pp. [http://www.wlf.louisiana.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/page_wildlife/6776-Rare%20Natural%20Communities/LA_NAT_COM.pdf]

  • Martin, D. L., and L. M. Smith. 1991. A survey and description of the natural plant communities of the Kisatchie National Forest, Winn and Kisatchie districts. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Baton Rouge, LA. 372 pp.

  • Mitsch, W. J., and J. G. Gosselink. 1993. Wetlands. Second edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York. 722 pp.

  • NPS [National Park Service]. 2005. Jean Lafitte NHP 2005 Habitat Data Map (1:12,000) created by USGS-NWRC. Unpublished data shared by NPS.

  • Pyne, M. 1994. Tennessee natural communities. Unpublished document. Tennessee Department of Conservation, Ecology Service Division, Nashville. 7 pp.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Smith, L. M., compiler. 1996a. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 2 pp.

  • Smith, Latimore M. Personal communication. Natural Heritage Program Ecologist. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge.

  • Soil Conservation Service. 1990. Soil survey of Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana. Prepared by Martin, P. G., Jr., C. L. Butler, E. Scott, J. E. Lyles, M. Mariano, J. Ragus, P. Mason, and L. Schoelerman. USDA Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with USDA Forest Service, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, and Louisiana Soil and Water Conservation Commission. 193 pp. plus maps.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • TNHS [Texas Natural History Survey]. No date. Unpublished data. Texas Natural History Survey, The Nature Conservancy, San Antonio.

  • Turner, R. L., J. E. Van Kley, L. S. Smith, and R. E. Evans. 1999. Ecological classification system for the national forests and adjacent areas of the West Gulf Coastal Plain. The Nature Conservancy, Nacogdoches, TX. 95 pp. plus appendices.

  • USFS [U.S. Forest Service]. 1988. Silvicultural examination and prescription field book. USDA Forest Service, Southern Region. Atlanta, GA. 35 pp.

  • Wieland, R. G. 1994b. Mississippi Natural Heritage Program: Ecological communities. Unpublished document. Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks, Museum of Natural Science, Natural Heritage Program, Jackson, MS. 7 pp.

  • Wieland, R. G. 2000b. Ecological communities of Mississippi: Mississippi Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks, Museum of Natural Science, Natural Heritage Program, Jackson, MS. 8 pp.


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