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Pinus taeda - Acer rubrum - Liquidambar styraciflua / Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Ruderal Wet Forest
Translated Name: Loblolly Pine - Red Maple - Sweetgum / Switch Cane Ruderal Wet Forest
Common Name: Great Dismal Swamp Ruderal Peat Dome Pine-Hardwood Wet Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL004649
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community is extensively distributed in the northern portion of the Great Dismal Swamp, on the margins of large peat domes, where peat feathers out into mineral soil. The type is a young, successional type which has probably replaced both hydrophytic oak forests and nearly treeless canebrakes following extensive cutting, fire suppression, and hydrologic alteration. Hydrology is saturated by permanently high water tables, with occasional shallow surface ponding during extended wet periods. Soils range from loamy sands to silty clay loams, with or without an organic mantle up to 30 cm deep. Pinus taeda, Acer rubrum var. trilobum, and Liquidambar styraciflua dominate the canopy in various combinations and proportions. The sparse subcanopy can include Acer rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua, Nyssa sylvatica, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Magnolia virginiana, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus nigra, Quercus michauxii, and Quercus alba. Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta occurs in dense (or sometimes patchy) stands. Other shrubs include Clethra alnifolia, Vaccinium formosum, Vaccinium fuscatum, Smilax rotundifolia, Smilax glauca, Ilex opaca, Ilex glabra, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera var. cerifera), Persea palustris, Leucothoe racemosa, and Toxicodendron radicans ssp. radicans. Locally, Lyonia lucida and Asimina triloba may occur, as well. Herbaceous species are sparse to essentially lacking, but can include Woodwardia areolata, Woodwardia virginica, Osmunda cinnamomea, and Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Associated rare species include Trillium pusillum var. virginianum, Solidago latissimifolia, and Swainson's Warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southeastern North American Ruderal Flooded & Swamp Forest
Group Southeastern Native Ruderal Flooded & Swamp Forest
Alliance Southern Ruderal Pine - Sweetgum Flooded & Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004679 Nyssa biflora - Liquidambar styraciflua - Acer rubrum var. trilobum / Clethra alnifolia Swamp Forest
CEGL007445 Acer rubrum var. trilobum - (Nyssa biflora) / Clethra alnifolia - (Persea palustris) Ruderal Wet Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Pinus taeda - Acer rubrum - Liquidambar styraciflua / Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Saturated Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1998. Comparative wetlands ecology study of the Great Dismal Swamp, Northwest River, and North Landing River in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 98-9. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 181 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Nonriverine Swamp Forest - Maple/Cane Subtype
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: LeGrand, H. E., Jr., with contributions by J. O. Fussell, III, and W. D. Webster. 1994. Biological inventory of Dismal Swamp State Natural Area, North Carolina. Unpublished report. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Raleigh. 94 pp.
Related Concept Name: Successional / Modified Palustrine Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.304 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Nonriverine Swamp and Wet Hardwood Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNA (01Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: GNA - Not Applicable
Reasons: The type is a young, successional type which has probably replaced both hydrophytic oak forests and nearly treeless canebrakes following extensive cutting, fire suppression, and hydrologic alteration. Some examples of this type may, in fact, represent altered examples of a rare association, Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Wet Shrubland (CEGL003843), and could be recorded as low-ranked examples with potential for restoration.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NC, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is extensively distributed in the northern portion of the Great Dismal Swamp.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Stands of this association are dominated by Pinus taeda, Acer rubrum var. trilobum, and Liquidambar styraciflua in various combinations and proportions. The sparse subcanopy can include Acer rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua, Nyssa sylvatica, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Magnolia virginiana, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus nigra, Quercus michauxii, and Quercus alba. Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta occurs in dense (or sometimes patchy) stands. Other shrubs include Clethra alnifolia, Vaccinium formosum, Vaccinium fuscatum, Smilax rotundifolia, Smilax glauca, Ilex opaca, Ilex glabra, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera var. cerifera), Persea palustris, Leucothoe racemosa, and Toxicodendron radicans ssp. radicans. Locally, Lyonia lucida and Asimina triloba may occur, as well. Herbaceous species are sparse to essentially lacking but can include Woodwardia areolata, Woodwardia virginica, Osmunda cinnamomea, and Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis. Occurrences of this community at Dismal Swamp State Natural Area in North Carolina have canopies almost completely dominated by Acer rubrum and open subcanopy and dense shrub layer of Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta (LeGrand 1994).


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community is extensively distributed in the northern portion of the Great Dismal Swamp and adjacent areas, on the margins of large peat domes, where peat feathers out into mineral soil. Hydrology is saturated by permanently high water tables, with occasional shallow surface ponding during extended wet periods. Soils range from loamy sands to silty clay loams, with or without an organic mantle up to 30 cm deep.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: The type is a young, successional type which has probably replaced both hydrophytic oak forests and nearly treeless canebrakes following extensive cutting, fire suppression, and hydrologic alteration.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G.P. Fleming
Element Description Edition Date: 01Feb2005
Element Description Author(s): G.P. Fleming and J. Teague
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Oct2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G. Fleming

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1998. Comparative wetlands ecology study of the Great Dismal Swamp, Northwest River, and North Landing River in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 98-9. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 181 pp. plus appendices.

  • LeGrand, H. E., Jr., with contributions by J. O. Fussell, III, and W. D. Webster. 1994. Biological inventory of Dismal Swamp State Natural Area, North Carolina. Unpublished report. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Raleigh. 94 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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