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Typha (angustifolia, latifolia) - (Schoenoplectus spp.) Eastern Marsh
Translated Name: (Narrowleaf Cattail, Broadleaf Cattail) - (Bulrush species) Eastern Marsh
Common Name: Eastern Cattail Marsh
Unique Identifier: CEGL006153
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: These tall emergent marshes are common throughout the northeastern United States and adjacent Canadian provinces. They occur in permanently flooded basins, often as part of a larger wetland mosaic and associated with lakes, ponds, or slow-moving streams. The substrate is muck over mineral soil. Lacustrine cattail marshes typically have a muck-bottom zone bordering the shoreline, where cattails are rooted in the bottom substrate, and a floating mat zone, where the roots grow suspended in a buoyant peaty mat. Tall graminoids dominate the vegetation; scattered shrubs are often present (usually totaling less than 25% cover) and are frequently shorter than the graminoids. Trees are absent. Bryophyte cover varies and is rarely extensive; bryophytes are mostly confined to the hummocks. Typha angustifolia, Typha latifolia, or their hybrid Typha x glauca dominate, either alone or in combination with other tall emergent marsh species. Associated species vary widely; sedges, such as Carex aquatilis, Carex lurida, Carex pellita (= Carex lanuginosa), Carex rostrata, Carex stricta, Scirpus cyperinus, and bulrushes, such as Schoenoplectus americanus (= Scirpus americanus) and Schoenoplectus acutus (= Scirpus acutus), occur along with patchy grasses, such as Calamagrostis canadensis. Broad-leaved herbs include Asclepias incarnata, Calla palustris, Impatiens capensis, Onoclea sensibilis, Sagittaria latifolia, Scutellaria lateriflora, Sparganium eurycarpum, Symplocarpus foetidus, Thelypteris palustris, and Verbena hastata. Floating aquatics, such as Lemna minor, may be common in deeper zones. Shrub species vary across the geographic range of this type; in the northern part of its range, Myrica gale, Ilex verticillata, and Spiraea alba are common. The invasive exotic plants Lythrum salicaria and Phragmites australis may be abundant in parts of some occurrences. This association is distinguished from other northeastern freshwater marshes by the strong dominance of Typha spp.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Typha angustifolia can grow in deeper water compared to Typha latifolia, although both species reach maximum growth at a water depth of 50 cm (Grace and Wetzel 1981). Typha often occurs in pure stands and can colonize areas recently exposed by either natural or human causes.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Eastern North American Freshwater Marsh
Alliance Cattail - Bulrush Mixed Deep Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002229 Typha spp. - Schoenoplectus acutus - Mixed Herbs Midwest Marsh
CEGL002233 Typha spp. Midwest Marsh
CEGL004150 Typha latifolia Southern Ruderal Marsh
CEGL005112 Typha spp. - Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani - Mixed Herbs Southern Great Lakes Shore Marsh



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia) semipermanently-flooded grasslands Equivalent Certain Metzler and Barrett 2006
Delaware Eastern Cattail Marsh Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maine Cattail Marsh Equivalent   Gawler 2002
Maryland Typha (angustifolia, latifolia) - (Schoenoplectus spp.) Eastern Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011
Massachusetts Deep Emergent Marsh Broader   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Hampshire Cattail Marsh Equivalent   Sperduto and Nichols 2004
New Jersey Typha (angustifolia, latifolia) - (Schoenoplectus spp.) Eastern Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Breden et al. 2001
New York Shallow emergent marsh Broader Certain Edinger et al. 2002
North Carolina Coastal Plain Semipermanent Impoundment (Typic Marsh Subtype) Intersects   Schafale 2012
North Carolina Piedmont/Mountain Semipermanent Impoundment (Piedmont Marsh Subtype) Intersects   Schafale 2012
Pennsylvania Cat-tail Marsh Equivalent   Fike 1999
Vermont Cattail Marsh Broader   Thompson and Sorenson 2000


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Typha (angustifolia, latifolia) - (Schoenoplectus spp.) Eastern Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Typha latifolia semipermanently-flooded grasslands
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Metzler, K. J., and J. P. Barrett. 2001. Vegetation classification for Connecticut. Draft 5/21/2001. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.
Related Concept Name: Typha (angustifolia, latifolia) - (Scirpus spp.) Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.
Related Concept Name: Cattail Marsh
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Thompson, E. 1996. Natural communities of Vermont uplands and wetland. Nongame and Natural Heritage Program, Department of Fish and Wildlife in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy, Vermont chapter. 34 pp.
Related Concept Name: Cattail marsh
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.
Related Concept Name: Palustrine Narrow-leaved Persistent Emergent Wetland, Permanently Flooded (PEM5H)
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E. T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, DC. 103 pp.
Related Concept Name: Robust Emergent Marsh
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.
Related Concept Name: Southern New England nutrient-poor streamside/lakeside marsh
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: Southern New England nutrient-rich streamside/lakeside marsh
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.594 Laurentian-Acadian Freshwater Marsh


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G5 (01Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, DCpotentially occurs, DE, MA, MD, ME, NCpotentially occurs, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VA, VT, WVpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association occurs throughout the northeastern U.S. from Maine to Virginia and possibly North Carolina.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Fundy Coastal and Interior Section
Section Code: 212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Maine Coastal and Embayment Section
Section Code: 212D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Erie and Ontario Lake Plain Section
Section Code: 222I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: White Mountain Section
Section Code: M212A Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Vermont-New Hampshire Upland Section
Section Code: M212B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Green, Taconic, Berkshire Mountain Section
Section Code: M212C Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Adirondack Mountain Section
Section Code: M212D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Catskill Mountain Section
Section Code: M212E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Tall graminoids dominate the vegetation; scattered shrubs are often present (usually totaling less than 25% cover) and are frequently shorter than the graminoids. Trees are absent. Bryophyte cover varies and is rarely extensive; bryophytes are mostly confined to the hummocks. Typha angustifolia, Typha latifolia, or their hybrid Typha x glauca dominate, either alone or in combination with other tall emergent marsh species. Associated species vary widely; sedges, such as Carex aquatilis, Carex lurida, Carex pellita (= Carex lanuginosa), Carex rostrata, Carex stricta, Scirpus cyperinus, and bulrushes, such as Schoenoplectus americanus (= Scirpus americanus) and Schoenoplectus acutus (= Scirpus acutus), occur along with patchy grasses, such as Calamagrostis canadensis. Broad-leaved herbs include Asclepias incarnata, Calla palustris, Impatiens capensis, Onoclea sensibilis, Sagittaria latifolia, Scutellaria lateriflora, Sparganium eurycarpum, Symplocarpus foetidus, Thelypteris palustris, and Verbena hastata. Floating aquatics, such as Lemna minor, may be common in deeper zones. Shrub species vary across the geographic range of this type; in the northern part of its range, Myrica gale, Ilex verticillata, and Spiraea alba are common. The invasive plants Lythrum salicaria and Phragmites australis may be abundant in parts of some occurrences.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Lythrum salicaria G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Onoclea sensibilis G5 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Phragmites australis G5 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Schoenoplectus acutus G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Schoenoplectus americanus G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Typha angustifolia G5 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Typha latifolia G5 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Typha x glauca G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: These tall emergent marshes are common throughout the northeastern United States and adjacent Canadian provinces. They occur in permanently flooded basins, often as part of a larger wetland mosaic and associated with lakes, ponds, or slow-moving streams. The substrate is muck over mineral soil. Lacustrine cattail marshes typically have a muck-bottom zone bordering the shoreline, where cattails are rooted in the bottom substrate, and a floating mat zone, where the roots grow suspended in a buoyant peaty mat. This association is often found in impounded waters.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This association is often found in impounded waters.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Eastern Ecology Group/Central Appalachian Planning Team
Element Description Edition Date: 22Jun2006
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
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  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.

  • Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E. T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, DC. 103 pp.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

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  • Gawler, S. C., R. E. Zaremba, and B. Agius. 2005. Vegetation mapping at Minute Man National Historical Park. Draft final report. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--XXXX/XXX. National Park Service. Philadelphia, PA.

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  • Gawler, S. C., and P. S. Bowman. 2012. Vegetation classification and mapping at Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site, New Hampshire. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2012/584.1. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

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  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

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