NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Pinus ponderosa / Symphoricarpos albus Forest
Translated Name: Ponderosa Pine / Common Snowberry Forest
Common Name: Ponderosa Pine / Snowberry Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL000203
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: The overstory of this community is dominated by Pinus ponderosa. There are lesser amounts of Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera, Quercus macrocarpa, Juniperus scopulorum, Picea glauca, Pinus flexilis, and Pseudotsuga menziesii successfully reproducing. The shrub layer is prominent and approximately 0.5-1.0 m tall. The most prevalent shrubs are Amelanchier alnifolia, Symphoricarpos albus, Shepherdia canadensis, Mahonia repens, Spiraea betulifolia, Juniperus communis, and Prunus virginiana. The herbaceous layer is also well-developed. Typical species found in this layer are Achillea millefolium, Campanula rotundifolia, Balsamorhiza sagittata, Galium spp., and Euthamia occidentalis. This ponderosa pine community type occurs in the mountains of the northwestern United States, from the eastern Cascades and northern Sierra Nevada to the Rocky Mountains and Black Hills. It is found on moderate, undulating slopes with loamy soils. Most stands are on slopes with more northerly aspects. Surface fires are a regular occurrence but regeneration after these events is rapid.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Hoffman and Alexander (1987) described two phases of this type, Oryzopsis asperifolia phase which is now (at least tentatively) identified as Pinus ponderosa / Oryzopsis asperifolia Woodland (CEGL002123) and the Balsamorhiza sagittata phase which remains part of this type (see Marriott and Faber-Langendoen 2000). Additionally, there is some ambiguity between this type as a forest or woodland; in increasingly dense stands, this type has >60% canopy closure. Johnston (1987) reports that this community is also in Nebraska, but its presence there seems doubtful.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Nb - Rocky Mountain Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Central Rocky Mountain Dry Lower Montane-Foothill Forest
Group Central Rocky Mountain Ponderosa Pine Open Woodland
Alliance Central Rocky Mountain Ponderosa Pine / Shrub Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL000187 Pinus ponderosa / Mahonia repens Forest
CEGL000202 Pinus ponderosa / Spiraea betulifolia Forest
CEGL000204 Pinus ponderosa / Symphoricarpos occidentalis Forest
CEGL000873 Pinus ponderosa / Quercus macrocarpa Open Woodland
CEGL002123 Pinus ponderosa / Oryzopsis asperifolia Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Oregon Pinus ponderosa / Symphoricarpos albus Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Pinus ponderosa / Shepherdia canadensis / Symphoricarpos albus / Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Habitat Unit
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Thilenius, J. F. 1972. Classification of the deer habitat in the ponderosa pine forest of the Black Hills, South Dakota. Research Paper RM-91. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 28 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pinus ponderosa / Symphoricarpos albus - floodplain
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Kovalchik, B. L. 1987. Riparian zone associations - Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont, and Winema national forests. Technical Paper 279-87. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 171 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pinus ponderosa / Symphoricarpos albus / Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Habitat Unit
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Thilenius, J. F. 1972. Classification of the deer habitat in the ponderosa pine forest of the Black Hills, South Dakota. Research Paper RM-91. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 28 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pinus ponderosa / Symphoricarpos albus Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]
Related Concept Name: Pinus ponderosa / Symphoricarpos albus Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).
Related Concept Name: Pinus ponderosa / Symphoricarpos albus Habitat Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Hoffman, G. R., and R. R. Alexander. 1987. Forest vegetation of the Black Hills National Forest of South Dakota and Wyoming: A habitat type classification. Research Paper RM-276. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 48 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Steele, R., R. D. Pfister, R. A. Ryker, and J. A. Kittams. 1981. Forest habitat types of central Idaho. General Technical Report INT-114. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 138 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pinus ponderosa / Symphoricarpos albus Plant Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Johnston, B. C. 1987. Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas. R2-ECOL-87-2. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. Lakewood, CO. 429 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pinus ponderosa / Symphoricarpos rivularis Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Daubenmire, R. 1952. Forest vegetation of northern Idaho and adjacent Washington, and its bearing on concepts of vegetation classification. Ecological Monographs 22(4):301-330.
Related Concept Name: Ponderosa Pine / Common Snowberry Forest Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Johnson, C. G., Jr., and S. A. Simon. 1987. Plant associations of the Wallowa-Snake Province Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. Technical Paper R6-ECOL-TP-255A-86. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. 399 pp. plus appendices.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES306.030 Northern Rocky Mountain Ponderosa Pine Woodland and Savanna


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4? (01Feb1996)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CA, ID, MT, OR, SD, WA, WY
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This ponderosa pine community type occurs from the mountains of the northwestern United States (eastern cascades and northern Sierras) to the Rocky Mountains and Black Hills, extending from eastern Washington south to northern California, east to South Dakota and north to Montana.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Division
Province Name: Great Plains-Palouse Dry Steppe Province
Province Code: 331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Palouse Prairie Section
Section Code: 331A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northwestern Glaciated Plains Section
Section Code: 331D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Marine Regime Mountains
Province Name: Cascade Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Eastern Cascades Section
Section Code: M242C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Mediterranean Regime Mountains
Province Name: Sierran Steppe - Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M261 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Modoc Plateau Section
Section Code: M261G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bighorn Mountains Section
Section Code: M331B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Idaho Batholith Section
Section Code: M332A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bitterroot Valley Section
Section Code: M332B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Belt Mountains Section
Section Code: M332D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Beaverhead Mountains Section
Section Code: M332E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Mountains Section
Section Code: M332G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Northern Rocky Mountain Forest - Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M333 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Okanogan Highlands Section
Section Code: M333A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Flathead Valley Section
Section Code: M333B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bitterroot Mountains Section
Section Code: M333D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Black Hills Coniferous Forest Province
Province Code: M334 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Black Hills Section
Section Code: M334A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The overstory of this community is dominated by successfully reproducing Pinus ponderosa. There are lesser amounts of Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera, Quercus macrocarpa, Juniperus scopulorum, Picea glauca, Pinus flexilis, and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Hoffman and Alexander (1987) sampled 12 stands of this type that averaged 35.8 m2/ha basal area. The shrub layer is prominent, with cover approaching 100% in some stands (Daubenmire 1952). The common shrubs in this community are Amelanchier alnifolia, Symphoricarpos albus, Shepherdia canadensis, Mahonia repens, Spiraea betulifolia, Juniperus communis, and Prunus virginiana. The herbaceous layer is also well-developed. Typical species found in this layer are Achillea millefolium, Campanula rotundifolia, Galium spp., and Euthamia occidentalis (= Solidago occidentalis). The description of this type relies heavily on data from the Black Hills. Pinus flexilis and Pseudotsuga menziesii are common in this type outside the Black Hills. Periodic surface fires move through the lower strata of this community. Regeneration after these events is rapid. Within a few years the signs of a fire may be difficult to detect (Daubenmire 1952).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Pinus ponderosa G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Betula papyrifera G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Populus tremuloides G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Quercus macrocarpa G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Amelanchier alnifolia G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Spiraea betulifolia G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Symphoricarpos albus G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Symphoricarpos occidentalis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Achillea millefolium G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Balsamorhiza sagittata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Campanula rotundifolia G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 


Vegetation Structure
Stratum Growth Form
Height of Stratum (m)
Cover
Class
%
Min
Cover %
Max
Cover %
Tree canopy Other/unknown
 
 
 
 
Tree subcanopy Other/unknown
 
 
 
 
Short shrub/sapling Shrub
 
 
 
 
Herb (field) Herb
 
 
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This community is found on moderate slopes with non-calcareous soils (Johnston 1987). The soils are usually loams with a high water-holding capacity, but they can be stony or sandy. If they are the latter, they tend to occur on north-facing slopes with more mesic microclimates (Daubenmire 1952).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Fire was likely an important factor in the regulation of stand structure historically. Periodic surface fires have been reported to move through the lower strata of this community.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen (2001)
Element Description Edition Date: 21Nov1995
Element Description Author(s): J. Drake
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Feb1996

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • BHCI [Black Hills Community Inventory]. 1999. Unpublished element occurrence and plot data collected during the Black Hills Community Inventory. Available upon request from the South Dakota Natural Heritage Program, Pierre, and Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie.

  • Clausnitzer, R. R., and B. A. Zamora. 1987. Forest habitat types of the Colville Indian Reservation. Unpublished report prepared for the Department of Forest and Range Management, Washington State University, Pullman. 110 pp.

  • Cooper, S. V., K. E. Neiman, R. Steele, and D. W. Roberts. 1987. Forest habitat types of northern Idaho: A second approximation. General Technical Report INT-236.USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT. 135 pp. [reprinted in 1991]

  • Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]

  • Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.

  • Daubenmire, R. 1952. Forest vegetation of northern Idaho and adjacent Washington, and its bearing on concepts of vegetation classification. Ecological Monographs 22(4):301-330.

  • Daubenmire, R. F., and J. B. Daubenmire. 1968. Forest vegetation of eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Washington State University Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 60. 104 pp.

  • Erixson, J., D. Cogan, and J. Von Loh. 2011b. Vegetation inventory project report: Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area. Natural Resource Report NPS/UCBN/NRR--2011/434 National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).

  • Ganskopp, D. C. 1979. Plant communities and habitat types of the Meadow Creek Experimental Watershed. Unpublished thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 162 pp.

  • Hall, F. C. 1973. Plant communities of the Blue Mountains in eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. R6 Area Guide 3-1. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 62 pp.

  • Hoffman, G. R., and R. R. Alexander. 1987. Forest vegetation of the Black Hills National Forest of South Dakota and Wyoming: A habitat type classification. Research Paper RM-276. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 48 pp.

  • Hop, K., M. Reid, J. Dieck, S. Lubinski, and S. Cooper. 2007. U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program: Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, WI. 131 pp. plus Appendices A-L.

  • Johnson, C. G., Jr., and S. A. Simon. 1987. Plant associations of the Wallowa-Snake Province Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. Technical Paper R6-ECOL-TP-255A-86. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. 399 pp. plus appendices.

  • Johnston, B. C. 1987. Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas. R2-ECOL-87-2. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. Lakewood, CO. 429 pp.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Kovalchik, B. L. 1987. Riparian zone associations - Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont, and Winema national forests. Technical Paper 279-87. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 171 pp.

  • Lynn, R., M. Larson, D. Hoeft, L. Todd, T. Raetz, L. Fager, and G. Barranco. No date. Black Hills National Forest ecological land units study. USDA Forest Service, Black Hills National Forest, SD.

  • MTNHP [Montana Natural Heritage Program]. 2002b. List of ecological communities for Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Montana State Library, Helena, MT.

  • Marriott, H. J., D. Faber-Langendoen, A. McAdams, D. Stutzman, and B. Burkhart. 1999. The Black Hills Community Inventory: Final report. The Nature Conservancy, Midwest Conservation Science Center, Minneapolis, MN.

  • McAdams, A. G., D. A. Stutzman, and D. Faber-Langendoen. 1998. Black Hills Community Inventory, unpublished data. The Nature Conservancy, Midwest Regional Office, Minneapolis, MN.

  • McLean, A. 1970. Plant communities of the Similkameen Valley, British Columbia, and their relationships to soils. Ecological Monographs 40(4):403-424.

  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.

  • Pfister, R. D., B. L. Kovalchik, S. F. Arno, and R. C. Presby. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. General Technical Report INT-34. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 174 pp.

  • Reid, M. S., S. V. Cooper, and G. Kittel. 2004. Vegetation classification of Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. Final report for USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, International Peace Park Mapping Project. NatureServe, Arlington VA.

  • SDNHP [South Dakota Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data. South Dakota Natural Heritage Program, Pierre, SD.

  • Salas, D. E., and M. J. Pucherelli. 1998b. USGS-NPS vegetation mapping, Jewel Cave National Monument, South Dakota. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Technical Memorandum No. 8260-98-06. Denver, CO.

  • Steele, R., R. D. Pfister, R. A. Ryker, and J. A. Kittams. 1981. Forest habitat types of central Idaho. General Technical Report INT-114. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 138 pp.

  • Terwilliger, C., K. Hess, and C. Wasser. 1979a. Key to the preliminary habitat types of Region 2. Addendum to initial progress report for habitat type classification. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Fort Collins, CO.

  • Thilenius, J. F. 1972. Classification of the deer habitat in the ponderosa pine forest of the Black Hills, South Dakota. Research Paper RM-91. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 28 pp.

  • Tisdale, E. W., and A. McLean. 1957. The Douglas fir zone of southern British Columbia. Ecological Monographs 27:247-266.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Zamora, B. A. 1983. Forest habitat types of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Agricultural Research Center, Washington State University Research Bulletin XB-0936-1983.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2019
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2019