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Fagus grandifolia - Quercus rubra / Aesculus sylvatica / Actaea racemosa - Adiantum pedatum Forest
Translated Name: American Beech - Northern Red Oak / Painted Buckeye / Black Baneberry - Northern Maidenhair Forest
Common Name: Piedmont Basic Mesic Mixed Hardwood Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL008466
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association represents intermediate and basic, mesic, mixed hardwood forests of the Piedmont, ranging from south-central Virginia south to Georgia. Stands of this association are closed-canopy forests dominated by Fagus grandifolia and Quercus rubra with Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus alba, Carya ovata, and Fraxinus americana. In addition, Acer barbatum or Acer leucoderme may be present within their ranges. Acer barbatum dominates the canopy of some stands. Prominent understory species include Aesculus sylvatica, Ostrya virginiana, and Asimina triloba. Herbs which appear to be abundant or characteristic include Polystichum acrostichoides, Asarum canadense, Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Adiantum pedatum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Tiarella cordifolia var. collina, Carex laxiflora var. laxiflora, Carex grisea, Desmodium pauciflorum, Uvularia sessilifolia, Maianthemum racemosum, Polygonatum biflorum, Tipularia discolor, Dicentra canadensis, Podophyllum peltatum, Cardamine concatenata, Erythronium americanum, and Erythronium umbilicatum ssp. umbilicatum.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: See Schafale and Weakley (1990) "Basic Mesic Forest, Piedmont Subtype," in part. More information will be provided by M. Schafale.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Interior-Northeastern Mesic Forest
Group Appalachian-Central Interior Mesic Forest
Alliance Piedmont-Ridge and Valley Beech - Red Oak Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL007181 Fagus grandifolia - Acer barbatum - Quercus muehlenbergii / Sanguinaria canadensis Forest
CEGL008465 Fagus grandifolia - Quercus rubra / Cornus florida / Polystichum acrostichoides - Hexastylis virginica Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Basic Mesic Forest (Piedmont Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012
South Carolina Basic Forest Broader   Nelson 1986


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: 1.4. [Fagus grandifolia - Acer barbatum / Aesculus sylvatica Forest]
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.
Related Concept Name: Acer barbatum - Fagus grandifolia - Carya cordiformis / Aesculus sylvatica / Asarum canadense Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Acer barbatum - Fagus grandifolia - Carya cordiformis / Aesculus sylvatica / Cimicifuga racemosa Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Basic Mesic Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Basic Mesic Forest (Piedmont Subtype)
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.342 Southern Piedmont Mesic Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3G4 (29Aug2002)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This association is naturally restricted to intermediate and basic, mesic environmental settings in the Piedmont. The degree of uncertainty in the rank reflects the need for further inventory of this community. Threats include timber harvest (in particular the removal of commercially valuable timber species), erosion, fragmentation, and the conversion of adjacent areas to planted pine stands. Some examples receive some protection on public lands (e.g., national forests, military lands, Corps of Engineers property).

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GA, NC, SC, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is found in the Piedmont and localized areas of adjacent ecoregions of the southeastern United States. The northern limit is the Appomattox River (Dinwiddie County) in Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Stands of this association are closed-canopy forests dominated by Fagus grandifolia and Quercus rubra with Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus alba, Carya ovata, and Fraxinus americana also important. In addition, Acer barbatum or Acer leucoderme may be present within their ranges. Prominent understory species include Aesculus sylvatica, Ostrya virginiana, and Asimina triloba. Herbs which appear to be abundant or characteristic include Polystichum acrostichoides, Asarum canadense, Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Adiantum pedatum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Tiarella cordifolia var. collina, Carex laxiflora var. laxiflora, Carex grisea, Desmodium pauciflorum, Uvularia sessilifolia, Maianthemum racemosum, Polygonatum biflorum, Tipularia discolor, Dicentra canadensis, Podophyllum peltatum, Cardamine concatenata, Erythronium americanum, and Erythronium umbilicatum ssp. umbilicatum. Nelson (1986) cites as components of the Basic Forest of the South Carolina Piedmont Quercus alba, Quercus shumardii, Quercus velutina, other oaks, Carya alba, Carya glabra, Aesculus pavia, Liriodendron tulipifera, Fagus grandifolia, Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum (sic) (in fact Acer barbatum, Acer leucoderme). He also cites Nyssa sylvatica, Cornus florida, Euonymus americanus, Symplocos tinctoria, Viburnum spp., Vaccinium spp., Rhododendron spp., Luzula spp., Juncus spp., Stellaria pubera, Podophyllum peltatum, Anemone virginiana, Anemone quinquefolia var. quinquefolia, Anemone lancifolia, Trillium cuneatum, Trillium catesbaei, Trillium cernuum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa, Cynoglossum virginianum, Uvularia perfoliata, Hybanthus concolor, and Iris cristata. In Virginia, high-quality stands are codominated by variable combinations of Fagus grandifolia, Acer barbatum, Quercus rubra, Carya cordiformis, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Fraxinus americana. Carya ovata, Quercus shumardii, and Quercus muehlenbergii are important in a minority of stands. The most common understory species are Asimina triloba, Aesculus sylvatica, Ostrya virginiana, and Carpinus caroliniana. Characteristic herbs include Podophyllum peltatum, Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Cardamine concatenata, Tiarella cordifolia var. collina, Polystichum acrostichoides, Adiantum pedatum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Asarum canadense, and Erythronium americanum ssp. americanum.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Fagus grandifolia G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Trillium reliquum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Trillium reliquum
  (Relict Trillium)
G3 LE: Listed endangered


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This association represents intermediate and basic, mesic mixed hardwood forests of the Piedmont, ranging from Virginia south to Georgia. Stands occupy mesic sites with soils of moderately high to high base status. Typical sites include ravines and north- or east-facing, river-fronting slopes. Underlying bedrock may include diabase, gabbro, amphibolite, calcareous siltstone, base-rich granites, and closely interbedded mafic and metasedimentary rocks.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M.P. Schafale
Element Description Edition Date: 24May2007
Element Description Author(s): M.P. Schafale, M. Pyne and G. Fleming
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Aug2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): J. Teague

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Nelson, J. B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina: Initial classification and description. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Columbia, SC. 55 pp.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schafale, Mike P. Personal communication. Ecologist, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • White, R. D., Jr., and T. Govus. 2003. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Ninety Six National Historic Site. Prepared for the National Park Service. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 146 pp.


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