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Hibiscus moscheutos - Polygonum punctatum - Peltandra virginica Tidal Marsh
Translated Name: Crimson-eyed Rosemallow - Dotted Smartweed - Green Arrow-arum Tidal Marsh
Common Name: Oligohaline Mixed Forbs Tidal Marsh
Unique Identifier: CEGL006181
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association is a diverse oligohaline marsh characterized by variable dominance of species found in the Chesapeake and Delaware bays. Species that form locally dominant patches can include Polygonum arifolium, Hibiscus moscheutos ssp. moscheutos, Polygonum punctatum, Peltandra virginica, Leersia oryzoides, Polygonum sagittatum, Mikania scandens, Spartina cynosuroides, and Toxicodendron radicans, among others. All of these species are able to tolerate a broad range of halinity, and the high mean species richness of this type suggests that it is generally restricted to only slightly oligohaline habitats. Typha angustifolia and Spartina cynosuroides often form large dominance patches. Infrequently present are several species that are more specific to oligohaline conditions, including Echinochloa walteri, Kosteletzkya virginica, Pluchea odorata, Rumex verticillatus, Sagittaria lancifolia, and Teucrium canadense. The colonial sedge Carex stricta sometimes forms local dominance patches, characteristically on hummocks raised 20-25 cm above the primary marsh surface.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: In Virginia, occurrences are known from the Mattaponi (New and Gleason marshes), Pamunkey (Sweet Hall, Cousiac, and Cohoke marshes), and Rappahannock (Otterburn Marsh) rivers. In Maryland, an occurrence documented from the Pocomoke River (Cypress Swamp) is currently attributed to this type. In New Jersey, an occurrence is known from Rancocas Creek.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Ne - Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Fresh-Oligohaline Tidal Marsh
Group Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Fresh-Oligohaline Tidal Marsh
Alliance Mixed Forb Oligohaline Tidal Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004314 Carex stricta - Peltandra virginica - Sagittaria (lancifolia ssp. media, latifolia) Tidal Marsh
CEGL006325 Impatiens capensis - Peltandra virginica - Polygonum arifolium - Schoenoplectus fluviatilis - Typha angustifolia Tidal Marsh



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Delaware Oligohaline Mixed Forbs Tidal Marsh Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maryland Hibiscus moscheutos - Polygonum arifolium - Leersia oryzoides - (Carex stricta) Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Hibiscus moscheutos - Polygonum arifolium - Leersia oryzoides - (Carex stricta) Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Coulling, P. P. 2002. A preliminary classification of tidal marsh, shrub swamp, and hardwood swamp vegetation and assorted non-tidal, chiefly non-maritime, herbaceous wetland communities of the Virginia Coastal Plain. October 2002. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-18. 30 pp.
Related Concept Name: Hibiscus moscheutos - Polygonum punctatum - Peltandra virginica - (Typha angustifolia) - (Spartina cynosuroides) Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Coulling, P. P. 2002. A preliminary classification of tidal marsh, shrub swamp, and hardwood swamp vegetation and assorted non-tidal, chiefly non-maritime, herbaceous wetland communities of the Virginia Coastal Plain. October 2002. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-18. 30 pp.
Related Concept Name: Kosteletzkya virginica Mixed Oligohaline Marsh
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Walton, D. P., P. P. Coulling, J. Weber, A. Belden, Jr., and A. C. Chazal. 2001. A plant community classification and natural heritage inventory of the Pamunkey River floodplain. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-19. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 200 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Oligohaline Mixed Forbs Marsh
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Strakosch Walz, K., L. Kelly, K. Anderson, and S. J. Stanford. 2007. The sea level fens, tidal freshwater marshes and tidal brackish marshes of New Jersey. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Parks and Forestry, Office of Natural Lands Management, Natural Heritage Program, Trenton, NJ. 189 pp.
Related Concept Name: Tidal Oligohaline Marsh
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.516 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Fresh and Oligohaline Tidal Marsh


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (14Jul2016)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DE, MD, NJ, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is currently described from Virginia, Maryland, and New Jersey.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: These are diverse oligohaline marshes characterized by variable dominance patterns but generally containing Polygonum arifolium, Hibiscus moscheutos ssp. moscheutos, Polygonum punctatum, Peltandra virginica, Leersia oryzoides, Polygonum sagittatum, Mikania scandens, and Toxicodendron radicans. Bidens laevis, Cicuta maculata, Cuscuta sp., Impatiens capensis, Lycopus americanus, and Sagittaria latifolia, and graminoids such as Typha latifolia and Schoenoplectus fluviatilis (= Bulboschoenus fluviatilis) may also be present at variable cover. Typha angustifolia and Spartina cynosuroides may form extensive dominance patches. All of these species are able to tolerate a broad range of halinity, and the high mean species richness of this type suggests that it is generally restricted to only slightly oligohaline habitats. Infrequently present are several species that are more specific to oligohaline conditions, including Echinochloa walteri, Kosteletzkya virginica, Pluchea odorata, Rumex verticillatus, Sagittaria lancifolia, and Teucrium canadense. Spartina cynosuroides occurs in approximately two-thirds of the representative vegetation sample plots and at times codominates. The colonial sedge Carex stricta often forms local dominance patches, characteristically on hummocks raised 20-25 cm above the primary marsh surface. Such stands also characteristically contain scattered individuals of Rosa palustris or Cephalanthus occidentalis.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Toxicodendron radicans G4 Liana Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Hibiscus moscheutos ssp. moscheutos G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Mikania scandens G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Peltandra virginica G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Persicaria sagittata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Polygonum arifolium G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Polygonum punctatum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Leersia oryzoides G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Spartina cynosuroides G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Most stands are located near the edge of an extensive marsh but set by the main river channel and often bordered by scattered clumps of shrubs. There is often hummock-and-hollow microtopography.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This association forms in oligohaline marshes on the Coastal Plain where gradual elevation gradients allow exaggeration of salinity gradients.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): P.P. Coulling and S.L. Neid
Element Description Edition Date: 04Jun2007
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid and L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Coulling, P. P. 2002. A preliminary classification of tidal marsh, shrub swamp, and hardwood swamp vegetation and assorted non-tidal, chiefly non-maritime, herbaceous wetland communities of the Virginia Coastal Plain. October 2002. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-18. 30 pp.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Harrison, Jason W. Personal communication. State Community Ecologist, Maryland Wildlife and Heritage Division, Department of Natural Resources, Tawes State Office Building, E-1, Annapolis, MD 21401.

  • New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. 2001. New Jersey 1995/97 Land Use / Land Cover - Level 3 Modified. Land Use Land Cover (Anderson) Classification System (derived from: A Land Use and Land Cover Classification System for Use with Remote Sensor Data, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 964, 1976: edited by NJDEP, OIRM, BGIA, 1998, 2000, 2001). New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008c. Vegetation classification and mapping at Colonial National Historical Park, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/129. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 369 pp.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008d. Vegetation classification and mapping at George Washington Birthplace National Monument, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/099. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 231 pp.

  • Strakosch Walz, K., L. Kelly, K. Anderson, and S. J. Stanford. 2007. The sea level fens, tidal freshwater marshes and tidal brackish marshes of New Jersey. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Parks and Forestry, Office of Natural Lands Management, Natural Heritage Program, Trenton, NJ. 189 pp.

  • Walton, D. P., P. P. Coulling, J. Weber, A. Belden, Jr., and A. C. Chazal. 2001. A plant community classification and natural heritage inventory of the Pamunkey River floodplain. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-19. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 200 pp. plus appendices.


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