NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Pinus strobus - Quercus alba - (Carya alba) / Gaylussacia ursina Forest
Translated Name: Eastern White Pine - White Oak - (Mockernut Hickory) / Bear Huckleberry Forest
Common Name: Appalachian White Pine - Mesic Oak Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007517
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association covers mesic pine-oak-hickory in the Cumberlands and Southern Ridge and Valley, Southern Blue Ridge Escarpment and in the Piedmont transition, found below 885 m (2900 feet) elevation, on protected ridges, mid- to upper slopes, and in disturbed bottoms. Canopies are dominated by variable mixtures of Pinus strobus, Quercus alba, Quercus velutina, Carya alba, and Acer rubrum. Other canopy species may include Liriodendron tulipifera, Tsuga canadensis, Quercus rubra, Quercus falcata, Quercus prinus, and Magnolia fraseri. Subcanopy and saplings include canopy species and Cornus florida, Halesia tetraptera, Oxydendrum arboreum, and Nyssa sylvatica. Shrub layers are moderate to dense, with Gaylussacia ursina and Kalmia latifolia most commonly dominating. Other shrubs include Rhododendron minus, Rhododendron maximum, Symplocos tinctoria, Arundinaria gigantea, Castanea dentata, Sassafras albidum, Amelanchier arborea, Pyrularia pubera, and Hydrangea radiata. The herb stratum is sparse, although ferns (Thelypteris noveboracensis, Dennstaedtia punctilobula and Polystichum acrostichoides) may occasionally dominate. Common herbs include Chimaphila maculata, Viola hastata, Goodyera pubescens, Maianthemum racemosum, Polygonatum biflorum, Monotropa uniflora, Trillium catesbaei, Desmodium nudiflorum, Eupatorium purpureum, Galium circaezans, Galium latifolium, Galax urceolata, Hexastylis shuttleworthii, Medeola virginiana, Mitchella repens, and Houstonia purpurea.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Appalachian Oak / Chestnut Forest
Alliance Appalachian White Pine - Oak Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL008539 Pinus strobus - Quercus alba - Quercus prinus / Vaccinium stamineum Forest
CEGL008567 Quercus alba - Quercus falcata / Vaccinium (arboreum, hirsutum, pallidum) Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Montane Oak--Hickory Forest (White Pine Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: BR Submesic Broadleaf Decid.-Needleleaf Ever. Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.
Related Concept Name: Dry-Mesic Oak--Hickory Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: IA6f. Dry White Pine Ridge Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Montane Oak-Hickory Forest (White Pine Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: White Pine - White Oak - Chestnut Oak Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schmalzer, P. A., and H. R. DeSelm. 1982. Vegetation, endangered and threatened plants, critical plant habitats and vascular flora of the Obed Wild and Scenic River. Unpublished report. USDI National Park Service, Obed Wild and Scenic River. 2 volumes. 369 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.359 Allegheny-Cumberland Dry Oak Forest and Woodland
CES202.886 Southern Appalachian Oak Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3G4 (23Oct2003)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This community is geographically restricted and uncommon within its range. Grank changed to G3G4 from G2G3 on the recommendation of Gary Kauffman, USDA Forest Service.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GA, KYpotentially occurs, NC, SC, TN
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is known from the Cumberlands and Southern Ridge and Valley, Southern Blue Ridge Escarpment and in the Piedmont transition region.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 221H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Canopies are dominated by variable mixtures of Pinus strobus, Quercus alba, Carya alba, and Acer rubrum. Other canopy species may include Liriodendron tulipifera, Tsuga canadensis, Quercus rubra, Quercus prinus, and Magnolia fraseri. Subcanopy and saplings include canopy species and Cornus florida, Halesia tetraptera, Oxydendrum arboreum, and Nyssa sylvatica. Shrub layers are moderate to dense, with Gaylussacia ursina and Kalmia latifolia most commonly dominating. Other shrubs include Rhododendron minus, Rhododendron maximum, Symplocos tinctoria, Arundinaria gigantea, Castanea dentata, Sassafras albidum, Amelanchier arborea, Pyrularia pubera, and Hydrangea radiata. The herb stratum is sparse, although ferns (Thelypteris noveboracensis, Dennstaedtia punctilobula, and Polystichum acrostichoides) may occasionally dominate. Common herbs include Chimaphila maculata, Viola hastata, Goodyera pubescens, Maianthemum racemosum, Polygonatum biflorum, Monotropa uniflora, Trillium catesbaei, Desmodium nudiflorum, Eupatorium purpureum, Galium circaezans, Galium latifolium, Galax urceolata, Hexastylis shuttleworthii, Medeola virginiana, Mitchella repens, and Houstonia purpurea.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Carya alba G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Liriodendron tulipifera G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Magnolia fraseri G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus alba G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus strobus G3 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Cornus florida G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Halesia tetraptera G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Nyssa sylvatica G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Oxydendrum arboreum G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Kalmia latifolia G3 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Gaylussacia ursina G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Gaylussacia brachycera G3 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Ageratina altissima var. roanensis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Goodyera pubescens G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Hexastylis contracta G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Medeola virginiana G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Mitchella repens G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Polystichum acrostichoides G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Thelypteris noveboracensis G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Ageratina altissima var. roanensis
  (Appalachian White Snakeroot)
G5T3T4  
Gaylussacia brachycera
  (Box Huckleberry)
G3  
Hexastylis contracta
  (Southern Heartleaf)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: Stands of this association are found below 885 m (2900 feet) elevation, on protected ridges, mid- to upper slopes, and in disturbed bottoms in the Cumberlands and Southern Ridge and Valley, Southern Blue Ridge Escarpment and in the Piedmont transition region. The presence of Pinus strobus in these forests may be a product of disturbance and subsequent fire suppression. It may have increased its abundance since about 1900.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): S. Simon, mod. K.D. Patterson
Element Description Edition Date: 01Aug1994
Element Description Author(s): S. Simon and K.D. Patterson
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 23Oct2003
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): K.D. Patterson, mod. M. Pyne/G. Kauffman

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schmalzer, P. A., and H. R. DeSelm. 1982. Vegetation, endangered and threatened plants, critical plant habitats and vascular flora of the Obed Wild and Scenic River. Unpublished report. USDI National Park Service, Obed Wild and Scenic River. 2 volumes. 369 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016