NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii / Cercis canadensis Forest
Translated Name: Sugar Maple - Chinquapin Oak / Eastern Redbud Forest
Common Name: Appalachian Sugar Maple - Chinquapin Oak Limestone Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006017
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This calciphilic maple-oak forest is found in the Central Appalachians and adjacent regions of the eastern United States, ranging south and west to the Interior Low Plateau of Tennessee and the Cumberlands of Alabama. Stands occur in thin soils over calcareous substrates, sometimes in association with limestone glades. These are typically closed-canopy, rich, dry to dry-mesic forests; in some stands the canopy may vary from closed to somewhat open, particularly in Pennsylvania at the northern edge of the range. In the Mid-Atlantic region, stands occupying the driest sites are commonly open and somewhat intermediate in physiognomy between forest and woodland. The stands are primarily composed of Acer saccharum or occasionally Acer nigrum, Quercus muehlenbergii, Fraxinus americana, and Ostrya virginiana. Associates include Quercus alba, Tilia americana, Acer nigrum, Ulmus rubra, Celtis occidentalis, Carya ovalis, and Carya ovata. Quercus prinus may also be present in some examples. A variable subcanopy and shrub layer contains Cornus florida, Cercis canadensis, Hamamelis virginiana, Rosa carolina, Rhus aromatica, Viburnum prunifolium, Viburnum rafinesquianum, Viburnum rufidulum, and Zanthoxylum americanum. The sparse to well-developed herb layer may contain Danthonia spicata, Elymus hystrix, Bouteloua curtipendula, Ageratina altissima (= Eupatorium rugosum), Antennaria plantaginifolia, Aquilegia canadensis, Arabis laevigata, Asclepias quadrifolia, Clematis occidentalis (to the north), Houstonia longifolia (= Houstonia tenuifolia), Polygonum scandens, Sanicula canadensis, Saxifraga virginiensis, and Packera obovata (= Senecio obovatus). Some other herbs recorded in Virginia examples include Agrimonia rostellata, Anemone virginiana var. virginiana, Symphyotrichum patens var. patens (= Aster patens var. patens), Bromus pubescens, Dichanthelium boscii, Erigeron pulchellus var. pulchellus, Galium circaezans, Sanicula canadensis, Scutellaria elliptica, and Solidago ulmifolia var. ulmifolia. Some stands attributed to this type are mesic forests of steep slopes in the Southern Ridge and Valley which are dominated by Acer saccharum and some combination of Quercus alba and/or Quercus muehlenbergii with Liriodendron tulipifera, Carya spp., and Aesculus flava in either the canopy or subcanopy. The same, or related forests, are reported from limestones of the lower Cumberland Plateau escarpment of Tennessee and possibly Alabama.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: The range of this type, which was initially described from "the High Alleghenies," has gradually extended south to at least the Interior Low Plateau. It may require subdivision. (This type was formerly attributed questionably to the Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain.) Some stands attributed to this type are mesic forests of steep slopes in the Southern Ridge and Valley which are dominated by Acer saccharum and some combination of Quercus alba and/or Quercus muehlenbergii with Liriodendron tulipifera, Carya spp., and Aesculus flava in either the canopy or subcanopy (Andreu and Tukman 1995). The same, or related forests, are reported from limestones of the lower Cumberland Plateau escarpment of Tennessee and possibly Alabama (Bowen et al. 1995). There has been discussion of the merits of subdividing this type, in effect re-splitting former Acer saccharum - Quercus (alba, muehlenbergii) / Aesculus flava Forest (CEGL006136) (or an equivalent) out of it again.

In a regional analysis of 1134 plots (Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia) for the Southern Appalachian portion of the Appalachian Trail (Fleming and Patterson 2009a), only 14 plots from southwestern Virginia were classified as this type. In a 1300-plot analysis of all Virginia montane upland forest and woodland data (Fleming and Patterson 2009b), 23 plots from across western Virginia are classified as this type. The species that have the highest diagnostic values for the latter group (compared to other calcareous forests) are Muhlenbergia sobolifera, Erigeron pulchellus var. pulchellus, Bromus pubescens, Solidago ulmifolia var. ulmifolia, Brachyelytrum erectum, Ulmus rubra, Packera obovata, Viburnum prunifolium, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Quercus rubra, Ostrya virginiana, Thalictrum dioicum, Fraxinus americana, and Quercus muehlenbergii.


Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Northeastern Chinquapin Oak - Red-cedar Alkaline Forest & Woodland
Alliance Chinquapin Oak Calcareous Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003903 Quercus muehlenbergii - Carya spp. / Ostrya virginiana Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain Forest
CEGL004741 Acer saccharum - Carya ovata - Juglans nigra / Symphoricarpos orbiculatus / Galium circaezans Forest
CEGL004793 Quercus muehlenbergii - Quercus (alba, rubra) - Carya cordiformis / Viburnum prunifolium Forest
CEGL005010 Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii Forest
CEGL006162 Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii / Carex platyphylla Forest
CEGL007233 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya ovalis / Acer saccharum / Polystichum acrostichoides Forest
CEGL007699 Quercus muehlenbergii - Quercus (shumardii, stellata) / Cercis canadensis / Viburnum rufidulum Forest
CEGL008458 Fraxinus americana - Carya ovata / Frangula caroliniana / Helianthus hirsutus Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Ohio Oak-Maple Forest Broader   ONHD unpubl. data
Pennsylvania Yellow Oak - Redbud Woodland Broader   Fike 1999


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Acer saccharum - Quercus (alba, muehlenbergii) Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Andreu, M. G., and M. L. Tukman. 1995. Forest communities of the Tellico Lake Area, East Tennessee. M.F. project report, Duke University, School of the Environment. Durham, NC. 66 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii / Cercis canadensis Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii / Houstonia longifolia Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Walton, D., N. Putnam, and P. Trianosky. 1997. A classification of the terrestrial plant communities of West Virginia. Second draft. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins, WV.
Related Concept Name: Quercus muehlenbergii - Acer (nigrum, saccharum) / Ostrya virginiana / Erigeron pulchellus - Packera obovata Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus muehlenbergii / Juniperus virginiana / Hybanthus concolor Association
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus muhlenbergii - Acer (nigrum, saccharum var. saccharum) / Ostrya virginiana / Senecio obovatus Forest, Type 3.1
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P. 1999. Plant communities of limestone, dolomite, and other calcareous substrates in the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 99-4. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 218 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus muhlenbergii - Acer (nigrum, saccharum) / Ostrya virginiana / Erigeron pulchellus - Packera obovata Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Montane Dry Calcareous Forest / Woodland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Montane Dry Calcareous Forest and Woodland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Yellow oak-sugar maple-red bud forest of calcareous upper slopes and summits
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.457 Southern Ridge and Valley / Cumberland Dry Calcareous Forest
CES202.602 Central Appalachian Alkaline Glade and Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4? (19Oct2000)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This forest is widely but somewhat locally distributed throughout its range in suitable calcareous habitats. It often occurs in relatively small, sometimes linear, patches except where carbonate substrates are more continuously exposed, for example on low hills and knobs (Fleming 1999). It also occurs in large patches on dry limestone knobs in the southwestern Virginia Ridge and Valley. There is very little requisite habitat for this vegetation in the George Washington and Jefferson national forests of Virginia; hence the type can be considered rare there. The largest occurrences on these national forests are probably in the Clinch Ranger District.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: ALpotentially occurs, GA, KY, MD, OH, PA, TN, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This maple - oak forest is found in the Central Appalachians and adjacent regions of the eastern United States, including the Ridge and Valley and Western Allegheny Plateau regions, ranging from Pennsylvania southward to the Interior Low Plateau of Tennessee and the Ridge and Valley of Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Northern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212G Occurrence Status: Possible
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 221H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: 221J Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Highland Rim Section
Section Code: 222E Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Bluegrass Section
Section Code: 222F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Southern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 231C Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The tall, closed-canopy stands are primarily composed of Acer saccharum, Quercus muehlenbergii, Fraxinus americana, and Ostrya virginiana. Associates include Quercus alba, Tilia americana, Acer nigrum, Ulmus rubra, Aesculus flava, Celtis occidentalis, Carya ovalis, Carya cordiformis, and Carya ovata. Quercus prinus may also be present in some examples. Throughout the Central Appalachians, stands occupying the driest sites are commonly open and somewhat intermediate in physiognomy between forest and woodland. A variable subcanopy and shrub layer contains Cornus florida, Cercis canadensis, Carpinus caroliniana, Lindera benzoin, Hamamelis virginiana, Rosa carolina, Rhus aromatica, Viburnum prunifolium, Viburnum rafinesquianum, Viburnum rufidulum, and Zanthoxylum americanum. The sparse to well-developed herb layer is usually species-rich and may contain Danthonia spicata, Elymus hystrix, Bouteloua curtipendula, Ageratina altissima (= Eupatorium rugosum), Antennaria plantaginifolia, Aquilegia canadensis, Arabis laevigata, Asclepias quadrifolia, Clematis occidentalis (to the north), Houstonia longifolia (= Houstonia tenuifolia), Polygonum scandens, Sanicula canadensis, Saxifraga virginiensis, and Packera obovata (= Senecio obovatus). Some other herbs recorded in Virginia examples include Agrimonia rostellata, Anemone virginiana var. virginiana, Symphyotrichum patens var. patens (= Aster patens var. patens), Bromus pubescens, Dichanthelium boscii, Erigeron pulchellus var. pulchellus, Galium circaezans, Sanicula canadensis, Scutellaria elliptica, and Solidago ulmifolia var. ulmifolia. Some additional taxa that are relatively constant in the broad type are Asplenium platyneuron, Botrychium virginianum, Carex blanda, Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Galium triflorum, Hybanthus concolor, Maianthemum racemosum, Polygonatum biflorum, Polymnia canadensis, Ranunculus recurvatus, and Sanguinaria canadensis. In addition, Muhlenbergia sobolifera may dominate the herbaceous stratum of some stands.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer saccharum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Acer nigrum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus alba G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus muehlenbergii G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus rubra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Ulmus rubra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Cercis canadensis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Berberis canadensis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Arabis patens G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Delphinium exaltatum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Desmodium cuspidatum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Erigeron pulchellus G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Hepatica nobilis var. acuta G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Hybanthus concolor G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lithospermum latifolium G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Monarda fistulosa ssp. 1 G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Packera obovata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Solidago ulmifolia G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Thalictrum dioicum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Bromus pubescens G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex purpurifera G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Melica nitens G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Muhlenbergia tenuiflora G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Arabis patens
  (Spreading Rockcress)
G3  
Berberis canadensis
  (American Barberry)
G3  
Delphinium exaltatum
  (Tall Larkspur)
G3  
Monarda fistulosa ssp. 1
  (Smoke Hole Bergamot)
G5T1T2  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This association is typically found on upper sideslopes or summits of limestone, dolomite, or marble ridges with dry soils. Along the New River in West Virginia, it is found in small patches on lower to middle gorge slopes eroded from calcareous geologic formations. These are alkaline forests associated with calcareous soils, often surrounding, or in association with, limestone or dolomite glades. The soils are well-drained, dry, and shallow with outcrops or boulders often present. In the Ridge and Valley and Central Appalachians of Virginia (Fleming 1999), stands of this type are evidently confined to substrates weathered from limestone and dolomite, most frequently occupying submesic to subxeric, southeast- to west-facing slopes at relatively low elevations (mean = 569 m [1867 feet]). These habitats usually appear to be quite dry, rocky, and at least somewhat exposed. The stands are most often situated on middle slopes but range into both lower and upper slope topographic positions. The slope shape is typically convex in at least one direction. Soils are yellow-brown to reddish-brown clay loams and silty clay loams; soil reaction ranges from strongly acidic (pH 5.3) to mildly alkaline (pH 7.4), with mean calcium (Ca) levels of 2474 ppm. In soils weathered from dolomite, magnesium (Mg) levels may exceed 1000 ppm (Fleming 1999). Soil chemistry analyzed from the one WV plot at New River Gorge had high pH (6.8) and high levels of total cation-exchange capacity, calcium (4180 ppm), potassium (121 ppm), and magnesium (424 ppm) compared to most other soils nearby.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): L.A. Sneddon, mod. M. Pyne after Fleming (1999)
Element Description Edition Date: 15Dec2006
Element Description Author(s): L.A. Sneddon, M. Pyne, after Fleming (1999), G.P. Fleming and S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Feb2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Andreu, M. G., and M. L. Tukman. 1995. Forest communities of the Tellico Lake Area, East Tennessee. M.F. project report, Duke University, School of the Environment. Durham, NC. 66 pp. plus appendices.

  • Bartgis, R. L. 1985a. A limestone glade in West Virginia. Bartonia 51:34-36.

  • Bartgis, R. L. 1993. The limestone glades and barrens of West Virginia. Castanea 58:69-89.

  • Bowen, B., M. Pyne, and D. Withers. 1995. An ecological survey of selected tracts in the Tennessee River Gorge: A report to the Tennessee River Gorge Trust. Tennessee Natural Heritage Program, Department of Environment and Conservation, Nashville. 100 pp.

  • CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 1999. Plant communities of limestone, dolomite, and other calcareous substrates in the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 99-4. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 218 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009b. Classification of selected Virginia montane wetland groups. In-house analysis, December 2009. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • ONHD [Ohio Natural Heritage Database]. No date. Vegetation classification of Ohio and unpublished data. Ohio Natural Heritage Database, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus.

  • Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.

  • Vanderhorst, J. P., J. Jeuck, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Vegetation classification and mapping of New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR-2007/092. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 396 pp.

  • Walton, D., N. Putnam, and P. Trianosky. 1997. A classification of the terrestrial plant communities of West Virginia. Second draft. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins, WV.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016