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Pinus serotina / Lyonia lucida - Ilex glabra - (Cyrilla racemiflora) Wet Shrubland
Translated Name: Pond Pine / Shining Fetterbush - Inkberry - (Swamp Titi) Wet Shrubland
Common Name: Evergreen High Pocosin
Unique Identifier: CEGL003846
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This is the typical high pocosin or tall pocosin of peatlands and wet mineral soils of the southeastern Coastal Plain, ranging from North Carolina south to Georgia and apparently to Florida. Pinus serotina individuals are scattered and more-or-less stunted. Typical shrubs, forming a dense tangle with abundant Smilax laurifolia, are Cyrilla racemiflora, Lyonia lucida, Ilex glabra, Ilex coriacea, Persea palustris, and sometimes Kalmia carolina. Other component shrubs can rarely include Clethra alnifolia, Vaccinium formosum, Gaylussacia frondosa (= var. frondosa), Kalmia cuneata, Photinia pyrifolia (= Aronia arbutifolia), Chamaecyparis thyoides, Acer rubrum var. trilobum, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera var. cerifera), Lyonia ligustrina var. foliosiflora, Magnolia virginiana, Rhododendron viscosum, and Toxicodendron radicans. Of these species, Magnolia virginiana may be constant, all others are quite scarce, except Kalmia cuneata locally.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Georgia occurrences (in the Outer Coastal Plain) are in different topographic settings; they are found in depressional wetlands (Carolina bays and limesink wetlands) and along stream borders. They may have significantly different floristics as well; they lack Chamaecyparis thyoides and may lack Rhus copallinum and Kalmia carolina among other species. These are all so scarce and low constancy in these communities that this is not an issue. Some examples in NC occur in large peat-filled bays, but limesinks would have CEGL004434 instead (M. Schafale pers. comm. 2004). More work is needed to determine whether these should be in a different association. Florida examples of this association are from Pinhook Swamp and Impassable Bay (Osceola NF) and Bradwell Bay (Apalachicola NF). These are very large poorly drained areas. Some stands from the Fall-line Sandhills of Fort Benning, Georgia (East Gulf Coastal Plain), at or near the local northern-most edge of the distribution of Pinus serotina are placed here. The polygons that have been referred here have dense evergreen shrubs (mostly Ilex glabra and Ilex coriacea) with some Arundinaria gigantea. They also have dense Smilax spp. (M. Mulligan pers. comm. 2001). See Element Occurrence CEGL003846*002*FB for more information. All three of these alliances and associations (CEGL003860, CEGL004666 and CEGL003846) are found at Fort Benning. This is primarily due to the dynamic nature of the vegetation types that are found in upland saturated soil conditions in a longleaf pine matrix. These vary among woodlands, shrublands, wooded shrublands and forests. Differences in fire intensity and fire frequency are common in these systems and often depend on season of burn, soil moisture levels, and burn return intervals. Divergence in these variables can play a significant role in the resulting vegetation structure and composition of the saturated woodlands, shrublands and wooded shrublands. This is the typical High Pocosin community, found all over the Outer Coastal Plain of NC (M. Schafale pers. comm. 2004). At this time, Virginia's limited Pond Pine Woodland vegetation is covered by Pinus serotina / Ilex glabra / Woodwardia virginica Swamp Woodland (CEGL004652).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.2 - Temperate to Polar Bog & Fen
Division 2.C.2.Nb - Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain Pocosin
Macrogroup Southeastern Coastal Bog & Fen
Group Southeastern Coastal Pocosin & Shrub Bog
Alliance Swamp Titi Wet Shrubland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003670 Pinus serotina / Cyrilla racemiflora - Lyonia lucida - Ilex glabra Swamp Woodland
CEGL003860 Pinus palustris - Pinus serotina / Ilex glabra - Lyonia lucida / Ctenium aromaticum Woodland
CEGL004458 Pinus serotina / Zenobia pulverulenta - Cyrilla racemiflora - Lyonia lucida Wooded Wet Shrubland
CEGL004666 Ilex coriacea - Lyonia lucida - Smilax laurifolia Wet Shrubland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina High Pocosin (Evergreen Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: High Pocosin
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: High Pocosin (Evergreen Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: IIC1b. High Pocosin
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Shrub Bog
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Wharton, C. H. 1978. The natural environments of Georgia. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Atlanta. 227 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.078 Southern Coastal Plain Herbaceous Seep and Bog
CES203.267 Atlantic Coastal Plain Peatland Pocosin and Canebrake
CES203.384 Southern Coastal Plain Nonriverine Basin Swamp
CES203.385 East Gulf Coastal Plain Interior Shrub Bog


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (30Jan2001)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This high pocosin or tall pocosin vegetation is restricted to peatlands and wet mineral soils of the southeastern Coastal Plain, ranging from North Carolina south to Georgia and northern Florida. Although formerly extensive, these communities are threatened by wetland alternation (ditching and draining). Additionally, the structure and composition of this community type are maintained by periodic catastrophic fires, which are now suppressed as wildfires, and are not allowable as controlled burns. For this reason, even `protected' occurrences are not readily manageable to approximate natural fire return intervals and intensities.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: FL, GA, NC, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This high pocosin or tall pocosin vegetation is found in the southeastern Coastal Plain from North Carolina south to Georgia and northern Florida.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Florida Coastal Lowlands (Western) Section
Section Code: 232D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: In this essentially shrub-dominated association, Pinus serotina individuals are scattered and more-or-less stunted. Typical shrubs, forming a dense tangle with abundant Smilax laurifolia, are Cyrilla racemiflora (absent in occurrences at the northern limit of the range in southeastern Virginia), Lyonia lucida, Ilex glabra, Ilex coriacea, Persea palustris, and sometimes Kalmia carolina. Other component shrubs can include Clethra alnifolia, Vaccinium formosum, Gaylussacia frondosa (= var. frondosa), Kalmia cuneata, Photinia pyrifolia (= Aronia arbutifolia), Chamaecyparis thyoides, Acer rubrum var. trilobum, Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera var. cerifera), Lyonia ligustrina var. foliosiflora, Magnolia virginiana, Rhododendron viscosum, and Toxicodendron radicans. Florida plots additionally included Lyonia ferruginea, Serenoa repens, Vaccinium myrsinites, Gordonia lasianthus, Taxodium ascendens, Pinus elliottii, Leucothoe racemosa, and Sarracenia minor. Certain species known from this association in the Carolinas do not occur in the association in Florida. These include Kalmia carolina, Kalmia cuneata, and Chamaecyparis thyoides.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Pinus serotina G3 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Cyrilla racemiflora G3 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Ilex glabra G3 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Lyonia lucida G3 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Kalmia cuneata G3 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Peltandra sagittifolia G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Kalmia cuneata
  (White-wicky)
G3  
Peltandra sagittifolia
  (Spoon-flower)
G3G4  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Stands of this association are found in peatlands and wet mineral soils of the Coastal Plain, from North Carolina south to Georgia and northern Florida. In Florida this association occurs in large poorly drained sandy peat areas. At Fort Benning, Georgia, the soils of this shrubland (CEGL003846) or Ilex coriacea - Lyonia lucida - Smilax laurifolia Wet Shrubland (CEGL004666) seem wetter than those of Pinus palustris - Pinus serotina / Ilex glabra - Lyonia lucida / Ctenium aromaticum Woodland (CEGL003860). In dry years, this difference in soil moisture is even more pronounced and evident. CEGL004666 is most often found along drains of narrow streams in highly dissected topographic situations and is therefore in wetter situations than either CEGL003846 or CEGL003860. CEGL004666 would have a less frequent fire-return interval due to higher levels of soil moisture than either CEGL003846 or CEGL003860. Burns in CEGL004666 would require a very dry year to allow fire to burn more than just the edges of this habitat type. CEGL003846 is in open, flat situations with saturated soils, but does not have the diverse herbaceous component seen in CEGL003860 due to a dense broad-leaved evergreen shrub component which would indicate a less frequent fire-return interval than CEGL003860. Furthermore, CEGL003846 does not have an open, continuous tree canopy; rather, canopy trees are sparse, scattered and often appear to have a stunted growth form (M. Mulligan pers. comm.).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This association is prone to infrequent high-intensity wildfire.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D.J. Allard, mod. A.S. Weakley and M.P. Schafale
Element Description Edition Date: 02Jan2013
Element Description Author(s): C.W. Nordman and J. Teague
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02Jan2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Christensen, N. L. 1979. Shrublands of the southeastern United States. Pages 441-449 in: R. L. Specht, editor. Ecosystems of the world. Series Publication 9A. Heathlands and related shrublands: Descriptive studies. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, New York.

  • Glitzenstein, J. S., and D. R. Streng. 2004. Evaluating the NatureServe preliminary plant community classification for Francis Marion National Forest. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL. Plus appendices and data.

  • Kologiski, R. L. 1977. The phytosociology of the Green Swamp, North Carolina. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulletin No. 250. 101 pp.

  • Mulligan, Maureen. Personal communication. Ecologist, TNC Fort Benning Project, PO Box 52452, Fort Benning, GA 31995.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. 2003b. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain communities. March 2003 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Sharitz, R. R., and J. W. Gibbons. 1982. The ecology of southeastern shrub bogs (pocosins) and Carolina bays: A community profile. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Service. FWS/OBS-82/O4. Washington, DC. 93 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Wharton, C. H. 1978. The natural environments of Georgia. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Atlanta. 227 pp.


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