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Quercus (alba, rubra, velutina) - Carya spp. / Viburnum acerifolium Forest
Translated Name: (White Oak, Northern Red Oak, Black Oak) / Hickory species / Mapleleaf Viburnum Forest
Common Name: Northeastern Dry Oak - Hickory Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006336
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This oak-hickory forest occurs on well-drained loamy sand of midslopes in the northeastern United States. This vegetation is ecologically transitional between dry-rich oak-hickory forests of relatively high diversity and dry, acidic oak species-poor forests. Quercus rubra, Quercus alba, and Quercus velutina are prominent in the canopy. Quercus prinus and Quercus coccinea are canopy associates in the southern portion of the range. Typical hickory species include Carya glabra, Carya ovata, Carya tomentosa, and Carya ovalis. Other canopy associates may include Acer rubrum, Sassafras albidum, and Amelanchier arborea. At the northern range limit of this type, Pinus strobus and Betula lenta also occur as minor associates. Cornus florida is a characteristic understory tree in portions of the range. The shrub layer is characterized by Viburnum acerifolium, with other frequent associates including Hamamelis virginiana, Vaccinium corymbosum, Corylus cornuta, and Corylus americana. A short-shrub layer may be common, but is generally not abundant, and is characterized by Vaccinium pallidum and Gaylussacia baccata, with Vaccinium angustifolium occurring more frequently to the north. The herbaceous layer is characterized by Carex pensylvanica, Carex rosea, Maianthemum racemosum, Aralia nudicaulis, Hieracium venosum, Solidago bicolor, Desmodium glutinosum, Desmodium paniculatum, Melampyrum lineare, Chimaphila maculata, Eurybia divaricata, Danthonia spicata, Aureolaria spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Dennstaedtia punctilobula, and Helianthemum canadense.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Northeastern Oak - Hickory Forest & Woodland
Alliance Northeastern Oak - Hickory Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002067 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya tomentosa / Cornus florida Acidic Forest
CEGL002076 Quercus velutina - Quercus alba - Carya (glabra, ovata) Forest
CEGL002078 Quercus velutina / Carex pensylvanica Forest
CEGL006282 Quercus montana - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Vaccinium (angustifolium, pallidum) Forest
CEGL006293 Pinus strobus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) - Fagus grandifolia Forest
CEGL006375 Quercus coccinea - Quercus velutina / Sassafras albidum / Vaccinium pallidum Forest
CEGL008475 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya tomentosa / Vaccinium stamineum / Desmodium nudiflorum Piedmont Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Quercus rubra / Viburnum acerifolium community Equivalent   Metzler and Barrett 2001
Delaware Northeastern Dry Oak-Hickory Forest Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maine Oak - hickory forest Intersects   Gawler 2002
Maine White oak - red oak forest Equivalent   Gawler 2002
Massachusetts Oak - Hickory Forest Equivalent   Swain and Kearsley 2000
New Hampshire Mesic Appalachian oak - hickory forest Equivalent   Sperduto and Nichols 2004
New Jersey Mesic coastal plain mixed oak forest Undetermined   Breden 1989
New York Appalachian oak-hickory forest Intersects Certain Edinger et al. 2002
Pennsylvania Dry oak-mixed hardwood forest Intersects   Fike 1999
Rhode Island Oak - Hickory Forest Broader   Enser 1999
Vermont Mesic Maple-Ash-Hickory-Oak Forest Broader   Thompson and Sorenson 2000


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Quercus (alba, rubra, velutina) / Cornus florida - Viburnum acerifolium Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Bartgis, R. 1986. Natural community descriptions. Unpublished draft. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis.
Related Concept Name: Oak - Hickory Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2001. Classification of natural communities of Massachusetts. September 2001 draft. Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough, MA.
Related Concept Name: Oak - Hickory Forest (OH3)
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Windisch, A .G. 2014a. Pinelands ecological communities and higher level groups with crosswalk / proposed 2008 revisions to NVC. November 16, 2014 draft. New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Trenton.
Related Concept Name: Piedmont Oak-Beech-Mountain Laurel Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.
Related Concept Name: SNE mesic central hardwood forest on acidic till
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.591 Central Appalachian Dry Oak-Pine Forest
CES202.592 Northeastern Interior Dry-Mesic Oak Forest
CES203.475 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Dry Oak-Hardwood Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4G5 (24Jan2005)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This type is not naturally rare and has a wide geographic distribution. Mature stands, however, are uncommon and most stands are subject to logging disturbances or even complete destruction if located in rapidly developing suburban areas.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association occurs from Maine to Maryland.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Vermont-New Hampshire Upland Section
Section Code: M212B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Green, Taconic, Berkshire Mountain Section
Section Code: M212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Catskill Mountain Section
Section Code: M212E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This vegetation is ecologically transitional between dry-rich oak-hickory forests of relatively high diversity and dry, acidic oak-species-poor forests. Quercus rubra, Quercus alba, and Quercus velutina are prominent in the canopy. Typical hickory species include Carya glabra, Carya ovata, Carya tomentosa, and Carya ovalis. Other canopy associates may include Acer rubrum, Quercus prinus, Sassafras albidum, and Amelanchier arborea. Pinus strobus, Tsuga canadensis, and Betula lenta may also occur as minor associates. Cornus florida is a characteristic understory tree in portions of the range. The shrub layer is typically rather sparse and characterized by Viburnum acerifolium, with other frequent associates including Hamamelis virginiana, Vaccinium corymbosum, Kalmia latifolia, Corylus cornuta, and Corylus americana. A short-shrub layer may be common but generally not abundant, characterized by Vaccinium pallidum and Gaylussacia baccata, with Vaccinium angustifolium occurring more frequently to the north. The herbaceous layer is characterized by Carex pensylvanica, Maianthemum racemosum (= Smilacina racemosa), Dryopteris marginalis, Aralia nudicaulis, Hieracium venosum, Solidago bicolor, Desmodium glutinosum, Desmodium paniculatum, Melampyrum lineare, Chimaphila maculata, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Danthonia spicata, Deschampsia flexuosa, Dennstaedtia punctilobula, Aureolaria spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Dennstaedtia punctilobula, and Helianthemum canadense. The invasive species Microstegium vimineum and Berberis thunbergii may also be present in this forest type.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Carya alba G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Carya glabra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Carya ovalis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus alba G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus prinus G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus rubra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus velutina G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Cornus florida G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Viburnum acerifolium G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Gaylussacia baccata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Vaccinium pallidum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Aralia nudicaulis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Maianthemum racemosum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex pensylvanica G4 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This forest type occurs on well-drained loamy sand of midslopes and other dry-mesic sites.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): P.C. Swain and J.B. Kearsley (2001)
Element Description Edition Date: 23Aug2012
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid, L.A. Sneddon, S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 24Jan2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G.P. Fleming

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
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