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Nyssa biflora - Quercus nigra - Quercus laurifolia - Pinus taeda / Carpinus caroliniana Riparian Forest
Translated Name: Swamp Tupelo - Water Oak - Laurel Oak - Loblolly Pine / American Hornbeam Riparian Forest
Common Name: Swamp Tupelo - Mixed Hardwood Small Stream Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007350
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: These forests occur in small stream floodplains in the Coastal Plain and lower Piedmont of the southeastern United States, from North Carolina south to Florida, with vegetation of mixed hydrological tolerances, due to fluvial landforms too small and hydrologic regime too variable to differentiate separate associated communities. The canopy of stands always includes substantial Nyssa biflora or Taxodium distichum along with substantial bottomland oaks (e.g., Quercus nigra, Quercus laurifolia) and other bottomland hardwoods, along with Pinus taeda. Typical subcanopy components include Ilex opaca and Carpinus caroliniana. The shrub stratum typically includes Leucothoe axillaris and Cyrilla racemiflora.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: The most closely related vegetation in Virginia is treated as Nyssa biflora - (Taxodium distichum) / Clethra alnifolia - Viburnum nudum / Woodwardia areolata Floodplain Forest (CEGL007054).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Floodplain Forest
Group Oak - Sweetgum Floodplain Forest
Alliance Coastal Plain Oak - Loblolly Pine Riparian Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL007348 Quercus laurifolia / Carpinus caroliniana / Justicia ovata Riparian Forest
CEGL007732 Liquidambar styraciflua - Quercus laurifolia - (Pinus taeda) / Arundinaria gigantea / Carex abscondita Floodplain Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Nyssa biflora - Quercus nigra - Quercus laurifolia - Pinus taeda / Ilex opaca - Carpinus caroliniana Forest Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
North Carolina Coastal Plain Small Stream Swamp Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Coastal Plain Small Stream Swamp
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: IIA5b. Coastal Plain Small Stream Swamp Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.247 Atlantic Coastal Plain Blackwater Stream Floodplain Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4? (19Sep2001)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, FL, GA, NC, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: These forests occur in the Coastal Plain and lower Piedmont of the southeastern United States, from North Carolina south to Florida.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy of stands always includes substantial Nyssa biflora or Taxodium distichum along with substantial bottomland oaks (e.g., Quercus nigra, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus pagoda, Quercus lyrata) and other bottomland hardwoods, along with Pinus taeda, or Pinus glabra within its range. Typical subcanopy components include Acer rubrum, Ilex opaca, and Carpinus caroliniana. Woody vines include Vitis rotundifolia, Bignonia capreolata, and Smilax bona-nox. The shrub stratum typically includes Symplocos tinctoria, Ilex decidua, Leucothoe axillaris, and Cyrilla racemiflora. Some herbs from a stand in the Apalachicola National Forest (Florida) include Chasmanthium laxum, Amorpha fruticosa, Aristolochia serpentaria, Botrychium biternatum, Clematis virginiana, Rhynchospora sp., and Lygodium japonicum (exotic).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Nyssa biflora G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus nigra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus laurifolia G4 Broad-leaved evergreen tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus taeda G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Taxodium distichum G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Carpinus caroliniana G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy  
 
 
Ilex opaca G4 Broad-leaved evergreen tree Tree subcanopy  
 
 
Lygodium japonicum G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: These forests occur in small stream floodplains in the Coastal Plain and lower Piedmont with forest vegetation of mixed hydrological tolerances, due to fluvial landforms too small and hydrologic regime too variable to differentiate separate associated communities.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M.P. Schafale
Element Description Edition Date: 26Nov1997
Element Description Author(s): M.P. Schafale
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Sep2001

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • ALNHP [Alabama Natural Heritage Program]. 2002. Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge: Natural community and rare plant survey. Alabama Natural Heritage Program, The Nature Conservancy, Montgomery.

  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, Mike P. Personal communication. Ecologist, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Weakley, A. S., K. D. Patterson, S. Landaal, M. Gallyoun, and others, compilers. 1996. International classification of ecological communities: Terrestrial vegetation of the Southeastern United States. Working draft of April 1996. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Southern Conservation Science Department, Community Ecology Group. Chapel Hill, NC.


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