NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Cakile edentula ssp. edentula - Chamaesyce polygonifolia Sparse Beach Vegetation
Translated Name: American Searocket - Seaside Sandmat Sparse Beach Vegetation
Common Name: North Atlantic Upper Ocean Beach
Unique Identifier: CEGL004400
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This is a sparsely vegetated upper beach community occurring on unstable sands and often gravels and cobbles just above mean high tide on maritime beaches and foredunes along the middle and northern Atlantic Coast. It also occurs on small bay islands and bay sides of barrier beaches. This association occurs at the wrack line where there is regular deposition of wave-deposited flotsam. The setting of this association is often dry sand, but is irregularly flooded by spring or storm tides. Vegetation cover is variable, depending on the amount of exposure to wave and wind action, but is generally sparse and characterized by annuals and biennials. Species composition can change dramatically from year to year but frequently includes Cakile edentula ssp. edentula, as well as Salsola kali ssp. kali (= Salsola caroliniana), Chamaesyce polygonifolia, Honckenya peploides, Cenchrus tribuloides, Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Xanthium strumarium, and Atriplex cristata (= Atriplex arenaria). Panicum amarum var. amarum is a frequent component south of the Delaware Bay. Globally rare species such as Polygonum glaucum and Amaranthus pumilus occur in this habitat. Sparse Ammophila breviligulata can occur sporadically as a common associate, colonizing from the adjacent beachgrass community. Diagnostic species are Cakile edentula ssp. edentula, Salsola kali ssp. kali, Atriplex cristata (= Atriplex pentandra), and Chamaesyce polygonifolia. This community occurs in maritime coastal areas from southern Maine to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.



Classification

Classification Confidence: High
Classification Comments: This community is common on maritime dunes of the Northeast but is vulnerable to development and shifting wave action due to jetties. J. Harrison (pers. comm. 2006): "In the Chesapeake Marshlands, in Maryland, a small patch of this vegetation was observed on South Marsh Island [see Observation Point CM-15]. Please note many of the associated 'maritime' species are not present in the refuge. Although not as well-developed in estuarine environments, consider expanding concept to include narrow sandy shorelines on bay islands."

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.B - Temperate & Boreal Grassland & Shrubland
Formation 2.B.4 - Temperate to Polar Scrub & Herb Coastal Vegetation
Division 2.B.4.Na - Eastern North American Coastal Scrub & Herb Vegetation
Macrogroup Eastern North American Coastal Beach & Rocky Shore
Group North Atlantic Coastal Beach
Alliance Atlantic Upper Beach

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004401 Cakile edentula ssp. harperi Sparse Beach Vegetation
CEGL005162 Cakile edentula Great Lakes Shore Sparse Vegetation
CEGL006106 Cakile edentula ssp. edentula - Mertensia maritima Sparse Beach Vegetation



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut American searocket - Lambsquarters (Cakile edentula - Chenopodium album) community Equivalent Certain Metzler and Barrett 2006
Delaware Beach Foredune Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maine Beach Strand Broader   Gawler 2002
Maryland Cakile edentula ssp. edentula - Chamaesyce polygonifolia Sparse Vegetation Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011
Massachusetts Maritime Beach Strand Community Equivalent   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Hampshire Coastal Shoreline Strand/Swale Equivalent   Sperduto 2000
New Jersey Cakile edentula ssp. edentula - Chamaesyce polygonifolia Sparse Vegetation Equivalent Certain Breden et al. 2001
New York Maritime Beach Broader Certain Edinger et al. 2002
North Carolina Upper Beach (Northern Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012
Rhode Island Maritime Beach Strand Equivalent   Enser and Lundgren 2006


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Cakile edentula - Chenopodium album community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Metzler, K. J., and J. Barrett. 1992. Connecticut community classification. Unpublished draft. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Metzler, K. J., and J. P. Barrett. 2001. Vegetation classification for Connecticut. Draft 5/21/2001. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.
Related Concept Name: Cakile edentula ssp. edentula - Chamaesyce polygonifolia Sparse Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Sneddon, L., and R. Zaremba. 2004. Vegetation classification of Cape Cod National Seashore. U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program. 240 pp.
Related Concept Name: Cakile edentula ssp. edentula Sparse Vegetation
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.
Related Concept Name: Cakile edentula ssp. edentula - Salsola caroliniana Sparse Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Bartgis, R. 1986. Natural community descriptions. Unpublished draft. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis.
Related Concept Name: Cakiletum edentula
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Conard, H. S. 1935. The plant associations of central Long Island. The American Midland Naturalist 16:433-516.
Related Concept Name: Beach
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fender, F. S. 1937. The flora of Seven Mile Beach, New Jersey. Bartonia 19:23-41.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Higgins, E. A. T., R. D. Rappleye, and R. G. Brown. 1971. The flora and ecology of Assateague Island. University of Maryland Experiment Station Bulletin A-172. 70 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: McDonnell, M. J. 1979. The flora of Plum Island, Essex County, Massachusetts. University of New Hampshire, Agricultural Experiment Station. Station Bulletin No. 513. Durham, NH. 110 pp.
Related Concept Name: Beach Strand
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.
Related Concept Name: Beach community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Baumann, C. 1978b. The effects of overwash on the vegetation of a Virginia barrier island. M.A. thesis. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA. 104 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Hill, S. R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea 5:265-305.
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Johnson, A. F. 1985b. A guide to the plant communities of the Napeague Dunes, Long Island, New York. Mad Printers, Mattituck, NY. 58 pp. plus plates.
Related Concept Name: Beach strand community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: MNAP [Maine Natural Areas Program]. 1991. Natural landscapes of Maine: Classification of ecosystems and natural communities. Maine Natural Areas Program, Maine Department of Conservation, Natural Resources Information and Mapping Center, Augusta, ME. 77 pp.
Related Concept Name: Beach vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Moul, E. T. 1973. Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern United States: Higher plants of the marine fringe. USDC National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. Technical Report NMFS CIRC-384. Seattle, WA. 61 pp.
Related Concept Name: Coastal Beach and Overwash Flat
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Coastal beach strand
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Sperduto, D. 1994. A classification of the natural communities of New Hampshire. April 1994 approximation. Unpublished document. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory, Department of Resources and Economic Development, Concord, NH. 45 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Coastal beach strand community
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: Dune and swale community
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Stalter, R. 1990. The vascular flora of Assateague Island, Virginia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 117:48-56.
Related Concept Name: Dune community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Jenkins, D. 1974. Natural areas of the Chesapeake Bay region: Ecological priorities. Smithsonian Institute, Ecology Program, Center for Natural Areas Ecology.
Related Concept Name: Dune-strand area
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Clovis, J. F. 1968. The vegetation of Smith Island, Virginia. Castanea 33:115-121.
Related Concept Name: Embryo dune
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Klotz, L. H. 1986. The vascular flora of Wallops Island and Wallops Mainland, Virginia. Castanea 51:306-326.
Related Concept Name: Marine intertidal gravel/sand beach community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.
Related Concept Name: Marine sandy beach
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Clancy, K. 1993b. A preliminary classification of the natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Inventory, Division of Parks and Recreation, Dover. 30 pp.
Related Concept Name: Maritime Beach
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Enser, R. 1999. Natural communities of Rhode Island. Unpublished draft, December 1999. 22 pp.
Related Concept Name: Maritime beach
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Reschke, C. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Middle beach
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Nichols, G. E. 1920. The vegetation of Connecticut: III. The associations of depositing areas along the seacoast. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 47:511-548.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Shreve, F., M. A. Chrysler, F. H. Blodgett, and F. W. Besley. 1910. The plant life of Maryland. Maryland Weather Service. Special Publication, Volume III. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD. 533 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pioneer beach community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Boule, M. E. 1979. The vegetation of Fisherman Island, Virginia. Castanea 44:98-108.
Related Concept Name: Sea-strand vegetation, beach formation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harshberger, J. W. 1900. An ecological study of the New Jersey strand flora. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science Philadelphia 52:623-671.
Related Concept Name: Upper Beach
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Upper Beach / Overwash Flat
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.064 Central Atlantic Coastal Plain Sandy Beach
CES203.301 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Sandy Beach


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4G5 (01Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NC, NH, NJ, NY, RI, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association ranges from southern Maine to North Carolina.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This is a sparsely vegetated association characterized by annuals and biennials. Species composition is variable, but frequently includes Cakile edentula ssp. edentula, Honckenya peploides, Salsola kali (= Salsola caroliniana), Atriplex patula, Cenchrus tribuloides, Chamaesyce polygonifolia, Atriplex cristata (= Atriplex arenaria, = Atriplex pentandra), Xanthium strumarium, and Chenopodium spp. Panicum amarum var. amarum is a frequent component south of the Delaware Bay. Globally rare species such as Polygonum glaucum and Amaranthus pumilus occur in this habitat. Ammophila breviligulata can occur sporadically, colonizing from the adjacent beachgrass community. Additional infrequent species can include Chenopodium rubrum, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium berlandieri var. macrocalycium, Cyperus filicinus, Triplasis purpurea, and Sesuvium maritimum. Bare substrate can comprise greater than 95% cover in this association.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Amaranthus pumilus G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Atriplex cristata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Cakile edentula ssp. edentula G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Chamaesyce polygonifolia G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Chenopodium album G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Polygonum glaucum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Salsola kali G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Salsola kali ssp. kali G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Amaranthus pumilus
  (Seabeach Amaranth)
G2 LT: Listed threatened
Polygonum glaucum
  (Seabeach Knotweed)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This association occurs on unstable sands and often gravels and cobbles just above mean high tide on beaches and foredunes washed over by spring and storm tides and impacted by wind erosion. It also occurs on small bay islands and bay sides of barrier beaches.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This association occurs at the wrack line; there is regular deposition of wave-deposited flotsam. It is irregularly flooded by very high tides, scoured by storm tides, and is constantly reworked by wind. Species composition is dominated by annuals and biennials and can change dramatically from year to year. If the habitat is protected from regular disturbance, perennial-dominated dune grass communities tend to develop.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): L.A. Sneddon 11-95, mod. Eastern Ecology Group 12-95, mod. S.L. Neid
Element Description Edition Date: 06Sep2013
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid and L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bartgis, R. 1986. Natural community descriptions. Unpublished draft. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis.

  • Baumann, C. 1978b. The effects of overwash on the vegetation of a Virginia barrier island. M.A. thesis. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA. 104 pp.

  • Berdine, M. A. 1998. Maryland vegetation classification. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, MD.

  • Boule, M. E. 1979. The vegetation of Fisherman Island, Virginia. Castanea 44:98-108.

  • Bowman, P. 2000. Draft classification for Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program.

  • Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.

  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Clancy, K. 1993b. A preliminary classification of the natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Inventory, Division of Parks and Recreation, Dover. 30 pp.

  • Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.

  • Clovis, J. F. 1968. The vegetation of Smith Island, Virginia. Castanea 33:115-121.

  • Conard, H. S. 1935. The plant associations of central Long Island. The American Midland Naturalist 16:433-516.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Dowhan, J. J., and R. Rozsa. 1989. Flora of Fire Island, Suffolk Country, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 116:265-282.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., A. L. Feldmann, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, E. Eastman, E. Largay, and L. A. Sneddon. 2008a. Vegetation classification and mapping at Gateway National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/107. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 283 pp.

  • Edinger, G. J., A. L. Feldmann, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, E. Eastman, E. Largay, and L. A. Sneddon. 2008b. Vegetation classification and mapping at Sagamore Hill National Historic Site, New York. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/124. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 126 pp.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2002. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Enser, R. 1999. Natural communities of Rhode Island. Unpublished draft, December 1999. 22 pp.

  • Enser, R. W., and J. A. Lundgren. 2006. Natural communities of Rhode Island. A joint project of the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Natural Heritage Program and The Nature Conservancy of Rhode Island. Rhode Island Natural History Survey, Kingston. 40 pp. [www.rinhs.org]

  • Fender, F. S. 1937. The flora of Seven Mile Beach, New Jersey. Bartonia 19:23-41.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2001. Natural landscapes of Maine: Natural community profiles. Open (non-forested) types. Final review draft, July 2001. Maine Natural Areas Program. Department of Conservation. Augusta, ME.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Godfrey, P. J., M. Benedict, and M. Soukup. 1978. A guide to the ecology of Cape Cod National Seashore (Mary 1978 draft). National Park Service Cooperative Research Unit, Institute for Man and Environment, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Harrison, Jason W. Personal communication. State Community Ecologist, Maryland Wildlife and Heritage Division, Department of Natural Resources, Tawes State Office Building, E-1, Annapolis, MD 21401.

  • Harshberger, J. W. 1900. An ecological study of the New Jersey strand flora. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science Philadelphia 52:623-671.

  • Higgins, E. A. T., R. D. Rappleye, and R. G. Brown. 1971. The flora and ecology of Assateague Island. University of Maryland Experiment Station Bulletin A-172. 70 pp.

  • Hill, S. R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea 5:265-305.

  • Jenkins, D. 1974. Natural areas of the Chesapeake Bay region: Ecological priorities. Smithsonian Institute, Ecology Program, Center for Natural Areas Ecology.

  • Johnson, A. F. 1985b. A guide to the plant communities of the Napeague Dunes, Long Island, New York. Mad Printers, Mattituck, NY. 58 pp. plus plates.

  • Klopfer, S. D., A. Olivero, L. Sneddon, and J. Lundgren. 2002. Final report of the NPS Vegetation Mapping Project at Fire Island National Seashore. Conservation Management Institute, GIS & Remote Sensing Division, College of Natural Resources, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA. 193 pp.

  • Klotz, L. H. 1986. The vascular flora of Wallops Island and Wallops Mainland, Virginia. Castanea 51:306-326.

  • Largay, E. F., and L. A. Sneddon. 2010. Vegetation mapping and classification of Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--XXXX/XXX. National Park Service. Philadelphia, PA.

  • MNAP [Maine Natural Areas Program]. 1991. Natural landscapes of Maine: Classification of ecosystems and natural communities. Maine Natural Areas Program, Maine Department of Conservation, Natural Resources Information and Mapping Center, Augusta, ME. 77 pp.

  • McDonnell, M. J. 1979. The flora of Plum Island, Essex County, Massachusetts. University of New Hampshire, Agricultural Experiment Station. Station Bulletin No. 513. Durham, NH. 110 pp.

  • Metzler, K. J., and J. Barrett. 1992. Connecticut community classification. Unpublished draft. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.

  • Metzler, K. J., and J. P. Barrett. 2001. Vegetation classification for Connecticut. Draft 5/21/2001. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.

  • Moul, E. T. 1973. Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern United States: Higher plants of the marine fringe. USDC National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. Technical Report NMFS CIRC-384. Seattle, WA. 61 pp.

  • NatureServe. 2009. Vegetation of the E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge. International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, VA. U.S.A. Data current as of 1 December 2009.

  • Nichols, G. E. 1920. The vegetation of Connecticut: III. The associations of depositing areas along the seacoast. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 47:511-548.

  • Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

  • Reschke, C. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY. 96 pp.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Shreve, F., M. A. Chrysler, F. H. Blodgett, and F. W. Besley. 1910. The plant life of Maryland. Maryland Weather Service. Special Publication, Volume III. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD. 533 pp.

  • Sneddon, L. A., Zaremba, R. E., and M. Adams. 2010. Vegetation classification and mapping at Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. Natural Resources Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2010/147. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 481 pp. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/caco/cacorpt.pdf]

  • Sneddon, L., and R. Zaremba. 2004. Vegetation classification of Cape Cod National Seashore. U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program. 240 pp.

  • Sperduto, D. 1994. A classification of the natural communities of New Hampshire. April 1994 approximation. Unpublished document. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory, Department of Resources and Economic Development, Concord, NH. 45 pp. plus appendices.

  • Sperduto, D. D. 2000a. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. Near final unformatted draft without pictures and illustrations; includes upland classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord, NH. 127 pp.

  • Sperduto, D. D. 2000b. A classification of wetland natural communities in New Hampshire. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory, Department of Resources and Economic Development, Division of Forests and Lands, Concord, NH. 156 pp.

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • Stalter, R. 1990. The vascular flora of Assateague Island, Virginia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 117:48-56.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2001. Classification of natural communities of Massachusetts. September 2001 draft. Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough, MA.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1995c. NBS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Vegetation classification of Assateague Island National Seashore. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016