NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Quercus prinus - Quercus (alba, coccinea) / Viburnum acerifolium - (Kalmia latifolia) Forest
Translated Name: Chestnut Oak - (White Oak, Scarlet Oak) / Mapleleaf Viburnum - (Mountain Laurel) Forest
Common Name: Appalachian Chestnut Oak - Mixed Oak Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL005023
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This chestnut oak - mixed oak forest community is found in the Allegheny Plateau region of Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Stands occur on dry to subxeric upper slopes and narrow ridgetops. Soils are shallow and occur over non-calcareous bedrock of sandstone, conglomerate, or shale. Tree species commonly include Quercus prinus and Quercus coccinea, along with Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, and Quercus velutina. Castanea dentata was a major component in the past and may be evident as root sprouts and/or decaying stumps and logs. Other associates can include Acer rubrum var. rubrum, Carya alba, Nyssa sylvatica, Oxydendrum arboreum, and occasional Pinus spp. (Pinus echinata, Pinus rigida, Pinus virginiana). Tall shrubs and small trees can include Cornus florida, Sassafras albidum, and Viburnum acerifolium. Characteristic dwarf-shrubs and vines include Gaylussacia baccata, Gaultheria procumbens, Smilax glauca, Smilax rotundifolia, Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, and, more locally, Kalmia latifolia. The herbaceous layer includes Antennaria plantaginifolia, Symphyotrichum cordifolium (= Aster cordifolius), Carex pensylvanica, Cypripedium acaule, Danthonia spicata, Epigaea repens, Helianthus divaricatus, Helianthus hirsutus, Dichanthelium dichotomum (= Panicum dichotomum), Polystichum acrostichoides, and others. Lichens (Cladina spp. and Cladonia spp.) and mosses can form a prominent layer.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This is the historic chestnut oak forest after loss of chestnut. Quercus alba may often be a codominant. Quercus velutina and Quercus rubra may be as common as Quercus coccinea in Ohio stands. In Ohio the type apparently occurs on both the glaciated and unglaciated portions of the Allegheny Plateau. Distinguishing this type from Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya ovata Glaciated Forest (CEGL002068) may require some minimum cutoff values for the dominance of Quercus prinus and Quercus coccinea (perhaps at least 20% cover or basal area of either), or ground layer species, such as Vaccinium or the lichens and mosses. Dominance by Acer saccharum (perhaps at least 25%) would place a stand in Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus - Acer saccharum / Lindera benzoin Forest (CEGL002059), the Appalachian oak - maple type. Compare this type with Quercus prinus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Vaccinium (angustifolium, pallidum) Forest (CEGL006282) and Quercus prinus / Smilax spp. Forest (CEGL005022).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Appalachian Oak / Chestnut Forest
Alliance Chestnut Oak - Scarlet Oak Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002059 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus - Acer saccharum / Lindera benzoin Forest
CEGL002068 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya ovata Glaciated Forest
CEGL005022 Quercus prinus / Smilax spp. Forest
CEGL006125 Quercus rubra - Acer saccharum - Liriodendron tulipifera Forest
CEGL006271 Quercus (prinus, coccinea) / Kalmia latifolia / (Galax urceolata, Gaultheria procumbens) Forest
CEGL006282 Quercus prinus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Vaccinium (angustifolium, pallidum) Forest
CEGL007119 Pinus virginiana - Pinus (rigida, echinata) - (Quercus prinus) / Vaccinium pallidum Forest
CEGL007700 Quercus prinus - Quercus spp. / Vaccinium arboreum - (Kalmia latifolia, Styrax grandifolius) Forest
CEGL008430 Quercus alba - (Quercus prinus) / (Hydrangea quercifolia) - Viburnum acerifolium / Carex picta Forest
CEGL008431 Quercus prinus - (Quercus coccinea) / Carya pallida / Vaccinium arboreum - Vaccinium pallidum Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Ohio Appalachian Oak Forest Broader   ONHD unpubl. data
Pennsylvania Dry Oak - Heath Forest Broader Certain Fike 1999



Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.359 Allegheny-Cumberland Dry Oak Forest and Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4? (01Feb2001)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This is a widespread type; Quercus prinus replaces itself after canopy removal, seeds germinate in the shade of parent trees, and stands can also replace themselves from stump sprouts.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: OH, PA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This chestnut oak - mixed oak forest community is found in the United States from Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. It is not found in Kentucky, which is south of its range.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 221H Occurrence Status: Possible
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Till Plains, Beech-Maple Section
Section Code: 222H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Tree species commonly include Quercus prinus and Quercus coccinea, along with Quercus alba, Quercus rubra and Quercus velutina. Castanea dentata was a major component in the past. Other associates can include Acer rubrum, Carya alba, Nyssa sylvatica, Oxydendrum arboreum, and occasional Pinus spp. (Pinus echinata, Pinus rigida, Pinus virginiana). Tall shrubs and small trees can include Cornus florida, Sassafras albidum, and Viburnum acerifolium. Characteristic dwarf-shrubs and vines include Gaylussacia baccata, Gaultheria procumbens, Smilax glauca, Smilax rotundifolia, Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, and, more locally, Kalmia latifolia. The herbaceous layer includes Antennaria plantaginifolia, Symphyotrichum cordifolium (= Aster cordifolius), Carex pensylvanica, Cypripedium acaule, Dichanthelium dichotomum var. dichotomum, Danthonia spicata, Epigaea repens, Helianthus divaricatus, Helianthus hirsutus, Polystichum acrostichoides, and others. Lichens (Cladina spp. and Cladonia spp.) and mosses can form a prominent layer (Anderson 1996, Fike 1999).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus coccinea G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus prinus G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Cornus florida G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Sassafras albidum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Viburnum acerifolium G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Gaultheria procumbens G4 Dwarf-shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Vaccinium pallidum G4 Dwarf-shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Gaylussacia baccata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Ageratina altissima var. altissima G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Solidago caesia G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex albicans G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Smilax glauca G4 Liana Herb (field)  
 
 
Smilax rotundifolia G4 Liana Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: Stands occur on dry/xeric upper slopes and narrow ridgetops. Soils are typically shallow and occur over non-calcareous bedrock of sandstone, conglomerate, or shale. Soils are acidic, with unincorporated mor humus that, in turn, promotes soil podzolization (Anderson 1996). In the glaciated region of the Allegheny Plateau, stands are more isolated, but have been reported over dry glacial features, such as kames or gravel knobs (Anderson 1996). Stands are on non-calcareous bedrock of sandstone, conglomerate, or shale in the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. In the glaciated region of the plateau, stands are more isolated, but have been reported over dry glacial features, such as kames or gravel knobs (Anderson 1996).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This community can occupy lower, more moist slopes with past, heavy disturbances from logging and fire (Anderson 1996). By and large Quercus prinus appears to have replaced Castanea dentata after that species was decimated by chestnut blight. Quercus prinus life-history characteristics include slow growth, lowered nutrient demands, relatively good drought resistance, relatively high fire resistance, good sprouting ability, and intermediate shade tolerance. Quercus coccinea life-history traits include a faster growth rate, shorter lifespan, lowered nutrient demands, poor fire resistance, and good sprouting ability. Its drought tolerance is less clear but may equal that of Quercus prinus.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen, mod. S. Menard
Element Description Edition Date: 24Oct2002
Element Description Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen and M. Pyne
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Feb2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Anderson, D. M. 1996. The vegetation of Ohio: Two centuries of change. Draft. Ohio Biological Survey.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.

  • ONHD [Ohio Natural Heritage Database]. No date. Vegetation classification of Ohio and unpublished data. Ohio Natural Heritage Database, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, W. A. Millinor, and L. A. Sneddon. 2006c. Vegetation classification and mapping at Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Park. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2006/058. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016