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Juniperus virginiana - Ostrya virginiana / Carex eburnea Woodland
Translated Name: Eastern Red-cedar - Hophornbeam / Bristleleaf Sedge Woodland
Common Name: Red-cedar Rocky Summit
Unique Identifier: CEGL006180
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This calcareous rocky summit community occurs in New England and in the northeastern portion of the Great Lakes ecoregion. Soils are generally thin, and exposed rock is common. The open canopy is dominated by Juniperus virginiana. Associated canopy species include Ostrya virginiana, Fraxinus americana, Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, and Carya ovata, plus Thuja occidentalis occasionally. In some examples, Celtis occidentalis occurs as a prominent shrub. The herbaceous layer is characterized by Carex eburnea. Other associates include Minuartia michauxii, Linum sulcatum, Monarda fistulosa, Asplenium platyneuron, Symphyotrichum patens, Symphyotrichum undulatum, Oligoneuron rigidum, Solidago nemoralis, Solidago bicolor, Danthonia spicata, Clematis occidentalis, Schizachyrium scoparium, and Houstonia longifolia.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Northeastern Chinquapin Oak - Red-cedar Alkaline Forest & Woodland
Alliance Red-cedar Calcareous Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006002 Juniperus virginiana - Fraxinus americana / Danthonia spicata - Poa compressa Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Juniperus virginiana / Ostrya virginiana community Equivalent   Metzler and Barrett 2001
Connecticut Circumneutral rocky summit/outcrop Undetermined   Metzler and Barrett 2001
Massachusetts Calcareous Rocky Summit/Rock Outcrop Community Broader   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New York Red cedar rocky summit Broader   Edinger et al. 2002
Rhode Island Red Cedar Rocky Summit Undetermined   Enser 1999
Vermont Red Cedar Woodland Broader   Thompson and Sorenson 2000


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Eastern Redcedar: 46
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: SNE Calcareous Rocky summit/ Rock Outcrop Community
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.572 Laurentian-Acadian Calcareous Rocky Outcrop


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2G3 (15Nov1997)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This community is known from upstate New York, southwestern Vermont, southeastern Ontario, and Rhode Island. There are probably fewer than 50 occurrences rangewide. This community is restricted to dry, knobby outcrops of limestone. Occurrences are very small in Vermont, usually less than one acre. New York occurrences are somewhat larger, mostly less than 20 acres. The largest occurrences are probably in Ontario on the Bruce Peninsula and on the Napanee Plain near Kingston. Total acreage is probably less than 3000 acres rangewide. Historical acreage is unknown; probably more than 50 percent has been destroyed, and much has been degraded by logging and/or grazing.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, MA, NY, RI, VT
Canadian Province Distribution: ON
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This association occurs in New England and in the northeastern portion of the Great Lakes ecoregion.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Erie and Ontario Lake Plain Section
Section Code: 222I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The open canopy is dominated by Juniperus virginiana. Associated canopy species include Ostrya virginiana, Fraxinus americana, Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, and Carya ovata, plus Thuja occidentalis occasionally. In some examples, Celtis occidentalis occurs as a prominent shrub. The herbaceous layer is characterized by Carex eburnea. Other associates include Minuartia michauxii (= Arenaria stricta), Linum sulcatum, Monarda fistulosa, Asplenium platyneuron, Symphyotrichum patens (= Aster patens), Symphyotrichum undulatum (= Aster undulatus), Oligoneuron rigidum (= Solidago rigida), Solidago nemoralis, Solidago bicolor, Danthonia spicata, Clematis occidentalis, Schizachyrium scoparium, and Houstonia longifolia.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Carya ovata G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Fraxinus americana G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Ostrya virginiana var. virginiana G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus alba G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Quercus rubra G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Juniperus virginiana G2 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Celtis occidentalis G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Carex eburnea G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: Calcareous, rocky summits with thin soils interspersed with exposed bedrock.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Eastern Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 20Feb2004
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Nov1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): C. Reschke

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Enser, R. W., and J. A. Lundgren. 2006. Natural communities of Rhode Island. A joint project of the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Natural Heritage Program and The Nature Conservancy of Rhode Island. Rhode Island Natural History Survey, Kingston. 40 pp. [www.rinhs.org]

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: First approximation and its application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford, CT.

  • ONHIC [Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre]. 2018. Unpublished data. Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, Canada.

  • Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2014. Classification of the natural communities of Massachusetts. Version 2.0. Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Westborough, MA. [http://www.mass.gov/nhesp/http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/natural-communities/classification-of-natural-communities.html]

  • Thompson, E. H., and E. R. Sorenson. 2005. Wetland, woodland, wildland: A guide to the natural communities of Vermont. The Nature Conservancy and the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. 456 pp.


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Data last updated: March 2019