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Peltandra virginica - Saururus cernuus - Boehmeria cylindrica / Climacium americanum Marsh
Translated Name: Green Arrow-arum - Lizard's-tail - Small-spike False Nettle / American Tree Moss Marsh
Common Name: Floodplain Pool
Unique Identifier: CEGL007696
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This vegetation occupies depressions of Piedmont and mountain floodplains, as well as broad flat floodplains of the Coastal Plain of Delaware and New Jersey. These depressions are usually abandoned channel segments or swales behind natural levees in which water is ponded for all or much of the year. Water may be supplied primarily by stream flooding or by rainfall. Vegetative cover is variable and may be confined to edges or shallower portions that dry out during the growing season. The vascular plant species vary widely among examples. Emergent vegetation may include Peltandra virginica, Dulichium arundinaceum, and Polygonum spp. Carex crinita or some other wetland Carex species are almost always present. Saururus cernuus and Boehmeria cylindrica are other typical herbs. Larger examples may have pad-leaved aquatic species such as Brasenia schreberi or Nymphaea odorata. Some examples have wetland shrubs on edges or in shallow portions, including Cornus amomum and Cephalanthus occidentalis. The moss Climacium americanum is often abundant on the landward side.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: These floodplain pools are transitional between wetland vegetated communities and aquatic communities. They are more distinctive for their aquatic fauna (and probably microflora) than for their higher plant communities. In fact, vegetation and floristics can be highly variable among sites. Two distinct kinds can be recognized based on the aquatic animal communities. Pools that are flooded by overbank streamflow at least as often as they dry out support fish as the dominant animal component. Those that are flooded more rarely and dry out between floods lack fish most of the time and support significant amphibian communities. These differences are not known to be reflected in vegetation but are important ecologically.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Eastern North American Freshwater Marsh
Alliance Rivershore & Lakeshore Green Arrow-arum - Pickerelweed Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004286 Justicia americana Riverbed Vegetation
CEGL004291 Pontederia cordata - Peltandra virginica Marsh
CEGL006244 Peltandra virginica - Polygonum amphibium var. emersum - Carex stricta - Impatiens capensis Marsh



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Green arrow arum - Lizard's tail (Peltandra virginica - Saururus cernuus) semipermanently flooded forb vegetation Equivalent Certain Metzler and Barrett 2006
Delaware Floodplain Pool Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maryland Peltandra virginica - Saururus cernuus - Carex crinita / Climacium americanum Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011
New Jersey Peltandra virginica - Saururus cernuus - Boehmeria cylindrica / Climacium americanum Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Breden et al. 2001
North Carolina Floodplain Pool Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012
Pennsylvania Lizard's-tail Emergent Bed Intersects Somewhat certain Zimmerman et al. 2012
Tennessee Peltandra virginica - Saururus cernuus - Boehmeria cylindrica / Climacium americanum Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Peltandra virginica - Proserpinaca palustris - Polygonum punctatum / Cephalanthus occidentalis Marsh
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Walton, D. P., P. P. Coulling, J. Weber, A. Belden, Jr., and A. C. Chazal. 2001. A plant community classification and natural heritage inventory of the Pamunkey River floodplain. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-19. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 200 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Peltandra virginica - Saururus cernuus - Carex crinita / Climacium americanum Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Sneddon, L. A. 1998. Vegetation classification and mapping of Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. Draft report submitted to the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service. NatureServe, Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA.
Related Concept Name: Peltandra virginica - Saururus cernuus semipermanently flooded vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Metzler, K. J., and J. P. Barrett. 2001. Vegetation classification for Connecticut. Draft 5/21/2001. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.
Related Concept Name: Saururus cernuus - Boehmeria cylindrica herbaceous wetland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Vanderhorst, J. 2001b. Plant communities of the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia: Northern and southern thirds. Non-game Wildlife and Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. Elkins. 146 pp.
Related Concept Name: Floodplain Pond / Pool
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Floodplain Pool
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 1998a. Fourth approximation guide. Mountain wetlands. February 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.608 Central Appalachian River Floodplain
CES202.706 South-Central Interior Small Stream and Riparian


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (23May2011)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This community is apparently rare but extends over a moderate geographic range. Individual occurrences are small, generally less than an acre. Many sites for this community have been lost to clearing for agriculture, ditching and draining, hydrologic alteration, and development. These sites are important for amphibian breeding.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, DE, MD, NC, NJ, OHpotentially occurs, PA, TNpotentially occurs, VA, WV
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This association is found in the Piedmont, Southern Blue Ridge and related ecoregions, north to the Coastal Plain in Connecticut. It may range south to Tennessee and North Carolina.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This association represents herbaceous wetland vegetation that is usually partially shaded by overhanging trees rooted outside of the community. Herbs are usually sorted out in zones along a hydrologic gradient and include a high diversity of wetland emergent and "weedy" native and exotic taxa. Emergent vegetation may include Peltandra virginica, Dulichium arundinaceum, and Polygonum spp. Other vascular plant species vary widely among examples. Carex crinita or some other wetland Carex species are almost always present. Other herbs with relatively high cover or constancy include Amphicarpaea bracteata, Apios americana, Arthraxon hispidus, Bidens spp., Boehmeria cylindrica, Calystegia sepium, Cardamine impatiens, Cuscuta gronovii, Dichanthelium clandestinum, Elymus virginicus, Equisetum arvense, Eragrostis hypnoides, Galium tinctorium, Glechoma hederacea, Glyceria striata, Hypericum mutilum, Impatiens capensis, Iris pseudacorus, Juncus effusus, Justicia americana, Lindernia dubia, Lobelia cardinalis, Lonicera japonica, Ludwigia palustris, Lysimachia ciliata, Lysimachia nummularia, Mentha arvensis, Microstegium vimineum, Mimulus alatus, Mimulus ringens, Onoclea sensibilis, Panicum anceps, Panicum rigidulum var. elongatum, Penthorum sedoides, Pilea pumila, Polygonum sagittatum, Sagittaria latifolia, Saururus cernuus, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silphium perfoliatum var. connatum, Toxicodendron radicans, Verbesina alternifolia, Veronica anagallis-aquatica and Viola striata. Larger examples may have pad-leaved aquatic species such as Brasenia schreberi or Nymphaea odorata. Some examples have wetland shrubs on edges or in shallow portions, including Cornus amomum, Asimina triloba, Ilex verticillata, Lindera benzoin, Rosa multiflora, Salix nigra, Sambucus canadensis (= Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis), and Cephalanthus occidentalis. Vascular plant species richness is typically high. The moss Climacium americanum is often abundant on the landward side.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Rosa multiflora G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Boehmeria cylindrica G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Cardamine impatiens G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Glechoma hederacea G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Hypericum mutilum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Impatiens capensis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Iris pseudacorus G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Justicia americana G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lindernia dubia G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lobelia cardinalis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Ludwigia palustris G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lysimachia ciliata G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lysimachia nummularia G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Mentha arvensis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Mimulus alatus G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Mimulus ringens G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Peltandra virginica G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Persicaria sagittata G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Pilea pumila G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Sagittaria latifolia G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Saururus cernuus G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Scutellaria lateriflora G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Veronica anagallis-aquatica G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Equisetum arvense G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Onoclea sensibilis G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Arthraxon hispidus G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex crinita G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Dichanthelium clandestinum G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Dulichium arundinaceum G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Elymus virginicus G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Glyceria striata G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Juncus effusus G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Microstegium vimineum G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Panicum anceps G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Panicum rigidulum ssp. elongatum G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Lonicera japonica G3 Liana Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This vegetation occurs in Piedmont and mountain floodplains, as well as broad flat floodplains of the Coastal Plain of Delaware and New Jersey. These depressions are usually abandoned channel segments or swales behind natural levees in which water is ponded for all or much of the year. These alluvial landforms are located at the bottom of upland gorge slopes behind larger floodplains, typically on point bars on the inside bends of river meanders. These positions may be flooded by forward-flowing water during larger floods and by back-flowing water during smaller floods. They also receive water inputs from seepage and rain. Patches of this vegetation type can be highly ephemeral but are likely to develop again on the same site following their destruction by large floods. As these habitats dry out, bare substrate is exposed which is colonized in a zonal pattern by a high diversity of weedy and flood-adapted species. There are usually some more-or-less permanent pools which provide important habitat for aquatic animals, including fish and amphibians. Soils are moderately well- to very poorly drained sand, clay loam, and muck. Slopes range from level to moderate but are typically gentle Water may be supplied primarily by stream flooding or by rainfall. Stands are usually partially shaded by overhanging trees from adjacent forests.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M.P. Schafale and M. Pyne
Element Description Edition Date: 20Dec2006
Element Description Author(s): M.P. Schafale, M. Pyne, S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 23May2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley, mod. S.C. Gawler and L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Metzler, K. J., and J. P. Barrett. 2001. Vegetation classification for Connecticut. Draft 5/21/2001. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.

  • Perles, S., G. Podniesinski, and J. Wagner. 2004. Classification, assessment and protection of non-forested floodplain wetlands of the Susquehanna drainage. Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Harrisburg. 128 pp.

  • Schafale, M. 1998a. Fourth approximation guide. Mountain wetlands. February 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Sneddon, L. A. 1998. Vegetation classification and mapping of Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. Draft report submitted to the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service. NatureServe, Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Suiter, D. W. 1995. The vascular flora, rare species and plant migrations of New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Master's thesis, Marshal University, Huntington, WV. 174 pp.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • Vanderhorst, J. 2001b. Plant communities of the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia: Northern and southern thirds. Non-game Wildlife and Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. Elkins. 146 pp.

  • Vanderhorst, J. P., J. Jeuck, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Vegetation classification and mapping of New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR-2007/092. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 396 pp.

  • Walton, D. P., P. P. Coulling, J. Weber, A. Belden, Jr., and A. C. Chazal. 2001. A plant community classification and natural heritage inventory of the Pamunkey River floodplain. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-19. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 200 pp. plus appendices.

  • Zimmerman, E. A. 2011t. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Lizard's-tail Emergent Bed Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=30012] (accessed February 17, 2012)

  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]


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