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Taxodium distichum / Cephalanthus occidentalis / Juncus repens Swamp Woodland
Translated Name: Bald-cypress / Common Buttonbush / Lesser Creeping Rush Swamp Woodland
Common Name: Lake Drummond Pondshore
Unique Identifier: CEGL004653
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community occurs on the sandy and peaty, seasonally flooded shores of Lake Drummond (Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge) and Outer Coastal Plain vernal ponds in Virginia. Taxodium distichum forms an open canopy (averaging about 50% cover). The shrub stratum is dominated by Cephalanthus occidentalis and seedlings of Taxodium distichum, with Clethra alnifolia, Leucothoe racemosa, Toxicodendron radicans ssp. radicans, and Acer rubrum also present. Herbaceous species typical of forested swamps, such as Triadenum walteri, Bidens discoidea, and Cuscuta compacta, occupy the peaty bases of trees and shrubs. Larger areas of exposed sand support Juncus repens, Eleocharis quadrangulata, Panicum verrucosum, Fuirena pumila, Cyperus polystachyos var. texensis, Cyperus odoratus, Fimbristylis autumnalis, Lindernia dubia, Echinochloa muricata, and Panicum dichotomiflorum.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This association was originally described from Lake Drummond, Virginia, at Great Dismal Swamp NWR and has since been found at other seasonally flooded basin ponds of the Outer Coastal Plain of Virginia (G.P. Fleming pers. comm. 2005). It is related to Taxodium distichum - Taxodium ascendens / Panicum hemitomon Swamp Woodland (CEGL004466) which is found along the shorelines of blackwater lakes in North Carolina. Merger of these types was considered in January 2005 and decided against because of the following perceived floristic differences. Taxodium ascendens does not occur in Virginia, and Panicum hemitomon and Cyrilla racemiflora do not occur in pond or lakeshore habitats there (G.P. Fleming pers. comm. 2004). Though the Taxodium species is ambiguous and the tree base herbs are similar, CEGL004466 does not have Cephalanthus occidentalis, and Panicum hemitomon and Cyrilla racemiflora are pretty important components of it.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Pond-cypress Basin Swamp
Group Pond-cypress Basin Swamp
Alliance Cypress Lakeshore Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002420 Taxodium distichum / Lemna minor Floodplain Forest
CEGL004465 Taxodium distichum - Taxodium ascendens / Panicum hemitomon - Sclerolepis uniflora Swamp Woodland
CEGL004466 Taxodium distichum - Taxodium ascendens / Panicum hemitomon Swamp Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Taxodium distichum / Cephalanthus occidentalis / Juncus repens Seasonally Flooded Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1998. Comparative wetlands ecology study of the Great Dismal Swamp, Northwest River, and North Landing River in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 98-9. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 181 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Baldcypress: 101
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: Coastal Plain Depression Wetland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.044 Southeastern Coastal Plain Natural Lakeshore


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1? (31Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: The rank of this association reflects its extremely limited habitat. The rank of this association reflects its extremely limited habitat. Fewer than five occurrences, covering less than a hectare, are known (G.P. Fleming pers. comm. 2004).

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs on the sandy and peaty, seasonally flooded shores of Outer Coastal Plain basin ponds of Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Taxodium distichum forms an open canopy (averaging about 50% cover). The shrub stratum is dominated by Cephalanthus occidentalis and seedlings of Taxodium distichum, with Clethra alnifolia, Leucothoe racemosa, Toxicodendron radicans ssp. radicans, and Acer rubrum also present. Herbaceous species typical of forested swamps, such as Triadenum walteri, Bidens discoidea, and Cuscuta compacta, occupy the peaty bases of trees and shrubs. Larger areas of exposed sand support Juncus repens, Eleocharis quadrangulata, Panicum verrucosum, Fuirena pumila, Cyperus polystachyos var. texensis, Cyperus odoratus, Fimbristylis autumnalis, Lindernia dubia, Echinochloa muricata, and Panicum dichotomiflorum.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Taxodium distichum G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Cephalanthus occidentalis G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Juncus repens G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community occurs on the sandy and peaty, seasonally flooded shores of Lake Drummond (Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge) and Outer Coastal Plain vernal ponds in Virginia.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G.P. Fleming
Element Description Edition Date: 01Feb2005
Element Description Author(s): J. Teague
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Feb2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): J. Teague

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 1998. Virginia natural community framework, version January 30, 1998. Unpublished document. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 6 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011b. Analysis of Coastal Plain / Outer Piedmont bottomlands and non-alluvial wetlands in Virginia, 400 plots. In-house analysis, January 2011. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1998. Comparative wetlands ecology study of the Great Dismal Swamp, Northwest River, and North Landing River in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 98-9. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 181 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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