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Nyssa biflora - Acer rubrum var. trilobum - Liriodendron tulipifera / Ilex coriacea - Lyonia lucida Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Swamp Tupelo - Carolina Red Maple - Tuliptree / Large Gallberry - Shining Fetterbush Swamp Forest
Common Name: Sandhills Swamp Tupelo Hillside Seepage Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL004645
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community occurs in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain, on steeply to gently sloping seepage areas on sandhill side slopes, and in headwater seepages. Nyssa biflora, Acer rubrum var. trilobum, and Liriodendron tulipifera typically dominate the canopy. Gordonia lasianthus, Magnolia virginiana, Oxydendrum arboreum, Quercus nigra, Pinus elliottii var. elliottii, and Pinus taeda can also occur. Subcanopy trees include Oxydendrum arboreum, Persea palustris, Ilex opaca, Magnolia virginiana, Magnolia grandiflora, and Gordonia lasianthus. The shrub layer is usually dense and evergreen, and is typically dominated by Ilex coriacea and Lyonia lucida. Herb diversity is low, but this stratum may include Carex atlantica, Carex intumescens, Chasmanthium laxum, Mayaca fluviatilis (= Mayaca aubletii), Mitchella repens, Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Platanthera spp., Woodwardia areolata, and Sphagnum spp. This association is known from the Fall-line Sandhills region and the outer Coastal Plain of Georgia and South Carolina.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Examples at Peachtree Rock TNC Preserve (Lexington County, South Carolina).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Evergreen Hardwood - Conifer Swamp
Group Coastal Plain Mixed Evergreen Swamp
Alliance Sweetbay - Swamp Tupelo - Laurel Oak Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004427 Nyssa biflora - (Acer rubrum) / Ilex opaca / Leucothoe axillaris / Carex atlantica ssp. capillacea Swamp Forest
CEGL004722 Magnolia virginiana - Nyssa biflora / Carpinus caroliniana / Thelypteris noveboracensis - Athyrium filix-femina Swamp Forest
CEGL004772 Liriodendron tulipifera - Nyssa biflora - Magnolia virginiana / Toxicodendron vernix - Morella caroliniensis Swamp Forest
CEGL007560 Pinus taeda - Nyssa biflora - Liquidambar styraciflua / Lyonia lucida Ruderal Wet Forest
CEGL008477 Nyssa biflora - Liquidambar styraciflua / Magnolia virginiana / Hamamelis virginiana - Viburnum nudum Swamp Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
South Carolina Streamhead Pocosin Broader   Nelson 1986



Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.252 Atlantic Coastal Plain Streamhead Seepage Swamp, Pocosin and Baygall
CES203.505 Southern Coastal Plain Seepage Swamp and Baygall


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (04Aug1998)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GA, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is known from the outer South Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Fall-line Sandhills region of Georgia and South Carolina.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Nyssa biflora, Acer rubrum var. trilobum, and Liriodendron tulipifera typically dominate the semi-open canopy of stands of this type. Gordonia lasianthus, Magnolia virginiana, Oxydendrum arboreum, Quercus nigra, Pinus elliottii var. elliottii, and Pinus taeda can also occur. Subcanopy trees include Oxydendrum arboreum, Persea palustris, Ilex opaca, Magnolia virginiana, Magnolia grandiflora, and Gordonia lasianthus. The shrub layer is usually dense and evergreen, typically dominated by Ilex coriacea and Lyonia lucida but can also include Ilex glabra, Morella caroliniensis (= Myrica heterophylla), Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta, Smilax laurifolia, Leucothoe axillaris, Smilax smallii, Rhododendron flammeum, Photinia pyrifolia (= Aronia arbutifolia), Clethra alnifolia, Leucothoe axillaris, Vaccinium spp., Viburnum nudum, and Persea palustris. Due to the density of the evergreen shrubs, the herbaceous stratum is often not well developed except along margins. Herb diversity is low, but this stratum may include Carex atlantica, Carex intumescens, Chasmanthium laxum, Mayaca fluviatilis (= Mayaca aubletii), Mitchella repens, Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Platanthera spp., Woodwardia areolata, and Sphagnum spp.


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community occurs in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Fall-line Sandhills region of Georgia and South Carolina, on steeply to gently sloping seepage areas on sandhill sideslopes and in headwater seepages. This saturated forest type is typically found in the longleaf pine matrix in sandhill situations as small, narrow patches along small intermittent streams. This is in contrast to Liriodendron tulipifera - Nyssa biflora - Magnolia virginiana / Toxicodendron vernix - Morella caroliniensis / Osmunda regalis Swamp Forest (CEGL004772), which is a saturated forest that is also found in longleaf pine matrix woodland situations. It appears to be most common in areas that are more mesic than those seen in sandhill situations (for example along larger streams and creeks). Both of these are in contrast to Nyssa biflora - (Acer rubrum) / Ilex opaca / Leucothoe axillaris / Carex atlantica ssp. capillacea Swamp Forest (CEGL004427), which is a saturated forest type that occurs in floodplain flats and along floodplain edges. This latter type is not saturated as a result of stream or river flooding, but rather due to seepage from adjacent sloping areas. This association may occur in these situations due to a difference in soil structure such as a subsurface clay layer that could lead to the saturated soil surface.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley, M. Pyne, and S. Landaal
Element Description Edition Date: 23May2005
Element Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley, M. Pyne, and S. Landaal
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Aug1998

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Nelson, J. B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina: Initial classification and description. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Columbia, SC. 55 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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