NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Ammophila breviligulata - Panicum amarum var. amarum Grassland
Translated Name: American Beachgrass - Bitter Panicgrass Grassland
Common Name: Beachgrass - Panicgrass Dune Grassland
Unique Identifier: CEGL004043
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community is a maritime dune grassland dominated by Ammophila breviligulata or Panicum amarum var. amarum. This dune grassland occurs almost exclusively on sandy, unstable, droughty substrates with no soil profile development. Eolian processes cause active sand deposition and erosion. The sand substrate is usually visible, and litter accumulation from plant debris is nearly absent. This community generally occurs on foredunes that receive the force of wind and salt spray, but is beyond the influence of most storm tides. It is found on maritime dunes from southern New Jersey (Cape May) south to the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, as well as on the northern North Carolina coast. Plant cover is variable, ranging from 10-75%, but is usually low. Other associated species include Solidago sempervirens, Artemisia campestris ssp. caudata, Strophostyles helvula, Triplasis purpurea, Cenchrus tribuloides, Chamaesyce polygonifolia, Oenothera humifusa, Schoenoplectus pungens (= Scirpus pungens) (where overwashed by sand), Diodia teres, Cakile edentula ssp. edentula, Nuttallanthus canadensis, Salsola kali ssp. kali (= Salsola caroliniana), Lechea maritima, Cyperus grayi, and Spartina patens. Sparse individuals of stunted Morella pensylvanica (= Myrica pensylvanica) shrubs and seedlings occur but make up less than 2% of the total vegetation cover. Diagnostic species are Ammophila breviligulata, Solidago sempervirens, Panicum amarum var. amarum, and Oenothera humifusa.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This grassland often occurs in a complex with Morella pensylvanica / Diodia teres Shrubland (CEGL003881). It contains several species characteristic to Cakile edentula ssp. edentula - Mertensia maritima Sparse Beach Vegetation (CEGL006106), but this grassland is differentiated by (1) its location beyond storm tide influence, (2) dominance by perennial rather than annual species, (3) greater plant cover on average, and (4) greater prevalence of Solidago sempervirens. Ammophila breviligulata - Lathyrus japonicus Grassland (CEGL006274) is the northern analog of this association; it is the beach grass-dominated primary dune association of the North Atlantic Coast. This association differs in being codominated by Panicum amarum, whereas CEGL006274 lacks Panicum amarum as a significant component and has or is codominated by Lathyrus japonicus. These two associations overlap geographically in southern New Jersey. On the southern part of Virginia's Eastern Shore, and in southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina, there is a transition zone in which this community gives way to Uniola paniculata - Schizachyrium littorale - Panicum amarum Grassland (CEGL004039), which is the analogous association of the southeastern coast. In this transition zone, some stands may be difficult to definitely place in one association or the other.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.B - Temperate & Boreal Grassland & Shrubland
Formation 2.B.4 - Temperate to Polar Scrub & Herb Coastal Vegetation
Division 2.B.4.Na - Eastern North American Coastal Scrub & Herb Vegetation
Macrogroup Eastern North American Coastal Dune & Grassland
Group North Atlantic Coastal Dune & Grassland
Alliance North Atlantic Beachgrass Dune Grassland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003950 Hudsonia tomentosa / Panicum amarum var. amarulum Dwarf-shrubland
CEGL006106 Cakile edentula ssp. edentula - Mertensia maritima Sparse Beach Vegetation
CEGL006274 Ammophila breviligulata - Lathyrus japonicus Grassland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Delaware Beachgrass-Panicgrass Dune Grassland Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maryland Ammophila breviligulata - Panicum amarum var. amarum Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011
New Jersey Ammophila breviligulata - Panicum amarum Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Breden et al. 2001
North Carolina Dune Grass (Northern Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Ammophila breviligulata - Panicum amarum var. amarum Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Ammophila breviligulata - Panicum amarum Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Bartgis, R. 1986. Natural community descriptions. Unpublished draft. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.
Related Concept Name: Ammophila, Panicum amarum dunes
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harvill, A. M., Jr. 1965. The vegetation of Parramore Island, Virginia. Castanea 30:226-228.
Related Concept Name: Panicum, Ammophila community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Egler, F. E. 1962. Ferns and flowering plants of Seashore State Park, Cape Henry, Virginia. New York State College of Forestry, Syracuse, NY. 60 pp.
Related Concept Name: Coastal dune grass community
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.
Related Concept Name: Dune Grass
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Dune Grass (Northern Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: Dune community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Baumann, C. 1978b. The effects of overwash on the vegetation of a Virginia barrier island. M.A. thesis. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA. 104 pp.
Related Concept Name: Dunegrass community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Higgins, E. A. T., R. D. Rappleye, and R. G. Brown. 1971. The flora and ecology of Assateague Island. University of Maryland Experiment Station Bulletin A-172. 70 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Hill, S. R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea 5:265-305.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Clampitt, C. A. 1991. The upland plant communities of Seashore State Park, Virginia Beach, Virginia. Virginia Journal of Science 42:419-435.
Related Concept Name: Foredune
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Boule, M. E. 1979. The vegetation of Fisherman Island, Virginia. Castanea 44:98-108.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Klotz, L. H. 1986. The vascular flora of Wallops Island and Wallops Mainland, Virginia. Castanea 51:306-326.
Related Concept Name: Maritime Dune Grassland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Mid-Atlantic Ammophila breviligulata, Panicum amarulum dune grassland variant
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Clancy, K. 1993a. Selected rare and historical vascular plants of Delaware. Bartonia 57:75-92.
Related Concept Name: Primary dune
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Stalter, R., and E. E. Lamont. 1990. The vascular flora of Assateague Island, Virginia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 117:48-56.
Related Concept Name: Sand dune
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fender, F. S. 1937. The flora of Seven Mile Beach, New Jersey. Bartonia 19:23-41.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.264 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Dune and Swale


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2 (08Oct1998)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: Although 65-100 Element Occurrences are estimated to occur over the range, total acreage likely does not exceed 3000 acres for this small-patch community. Many of the highest quality EOs are on public land, but they continue to be threatened by trampling, ORVs, and in some cases grazing by feral horses. The association is highly fragile and does not recover well from these actions.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DE, MD, NC, NJ, NY, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs on maritime dunes from Long Island, New York, south to North Carolina.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This maritime dune grassland is dominated by Ammophila breviligulata or Panicum amarum var. amarum. Plant cover is variable, ranging from 10-75%, but is usually low. Other associated species include Solidago sempervirens, Artemisia campestris ssp. caudata, Strophostyles helvula, Triplasis purpurea, Cenchrus tribuloides, Chamaesyce polygonifolia, Oenothera humifusa, Schoenoplectus pungens (= Scirpus pungens) (where overwashed by sand), Diodia teres, Cakile edentula ssp. edentula, Nuttallanthus canadensis, Salsola kali ssp. kali (= Salsola caroliniana), Lechea maritima, Cyperus grayi, and Spartina patens. Sparse individuals of stunted Morella pensylvanica (= Myrica pensylvanica) shrubs and seedlings occur but make up less than 2% of the total vegetation cover. Diagnostic species are Ammophila breviligulata, Solidago sempervirens, Panicum amarum var. amarum, and Oenothera humifusa. Oenothera humifusa and Spartina patens differentiate this community from its northern beachgrass counterpart. At the southern end of the range in Virginia and northeastern North Carolina, Uniola paniculata may be a low-cover associate. This association (CEGL004043) contains several species characteristic to Cakile edentula ssp. edentula - Mertensia maritima Sparse Beach Vegetation (CEGL006106), but it is differentiated by (1) its location beyond storm tide influence, (2) dominance by perennial rather than annual species, (3) greater plant cover on average, and (4) greater prevalence of Solidago sempervirens.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Oenothera humifusa G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Salsola kali ssp. kali G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Solidago sempervirens G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Ammophila breviligulata G2 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Panicum amarum var. amarulum G2 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This dune grassland community occurs almost exclusively on sandy, unstable, droughty substrates with no soil profile development. Eolian processes cause active sand deposition and erosion. The sand substrate is usually visible, and litter accumulation from plant debris is nearly absent. This community generally occurs on foredunes that receive the force of wind and salt spray, but is beyond the influence of most storm tides.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This association occurs on the shifting sands of active dune systems. Sand is wind-deposited and tends to accumulate where vegetation slows the surface wind velocity (Martin 1959b). Rhizomes of Ammophila breviligulata stabilize the dunes, growing upward through layers of sand deposition. Ammophila breviligulata tends to grow best where there is relatively rapid sand deposition; it can grow through one meter of sand accumulation (Zaremba and Leatherman 1984). Species diversity of this association tends to increase landward in more protected areas where the substrate is more stable.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): L.A. Sneddon and A. Berdine, mod. S.L. Neid
Element Description Edition Date: 26Mar2007
Element Description Author(s): L.A. Sneddon and E.F. Largay
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Oct1998
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bartgis, R. 1986. Natural community descriptions. Unpublished draft. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis.

  • Baumann, C. 1978b. The effects of overwash on the vegetation of a Virginia barrier island. M.A. thesis. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA. 104 pp.

  • Berdine, M. A. 1998. Maryland vegetation classification. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, MD.

  • Boule, M. E. 1979. The vegetation of Fisherman Island, Virginia. Castanea 44:98-108.

  • Bowman, P. 2000. Draft classification for Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program.

  • Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.

  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Brock, J. C., C. W. Wright, M. Patterson, A. Naeghandi, and L. J. Travers. 2007. EAARL bare earth topography - Assateague Island National Seashore. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2007-1176. [http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1176/start.html]

  • Clampitt, C. A. 1991. The upland plant communities of Seashore State Park, Virginia Beach, Virginia. Virginia Journal of Science 42:419-435.

  • Clancy, K. 1993a. Selected rare and historical vascular plants of Delaware. Bartonia 57:75-92.

  • Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., A. L. Feldmann, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, E. Eastman, E. Largay, and L. A. Sneddon. 2008a. Vegetation classification and mapping at Gateway National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/107. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 283 pp.

  • Egler, F. E. 1962. Ferns and flowering plants of Seashore State Park, Cape Henry, Virginia. New York State College of Forestry, Syracuse, NY. 60 pp.

  • Fender, F. S. 1937. The flora of Seven Mile Beach, New Jersey. Bartonia 19:23-41.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2001a. Community types of Coastal Plain calcareous ravines in Virginia. Preliminary analysis and classification. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 4 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Harvill, A. M., Jr. 1965. The vegetation of Parramore Island, Virginia. Castanea 30:226-228.

  • Higgins, E. A. T., R. D. Rappleye, and R. G. Brown. 1971. The flora and ecology of Assateague Island. University of Maryland Experiment Station Bulletin A-172. 70 pp.

  • Hill, S. R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea 5:265-305.

  • Klotz, L. H. 1986. The vascular flora of Wallops Island and Wallops Mainland, Virginia. Castanea 51:306-326.

  • Martin, W. E. 1959b. The vegetation of Island Beach State Park, New Jersey. Ecological Monographs 29:1-46.

  • NRCS [Natural Resources Conservation Service]. 2001b. Soil survey of Gateway National Recreation Area, New York and New Jersey. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service and USDI National Park Service, Gateway National Recreation Area in partnership with Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station and New York City Soil and Water Conservation District.

  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. 2003b. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain communities. March 2003 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Stalter, R., and E. E. Lamont. 1990. The vascular flora of Assateague Island, Virginia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 117:48-56.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1995c. NBS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Vegetation classification of Assateague Island National Seashore. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1997a. Vegetation classification of Assateague Island National Seashore and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge. Report to the NBS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program. The Nature Conservancy. Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA.

  • Zaremba, R. E., and S. P. Leatherman. 1984. Overwash processes and foredune ecology, Nauset Spit, Massachusetts. Miscellaneous Paper EL-84-8. Prepared by Massachusetts Audubon Society and University of Massachusetts under cooperative agreement between USDI National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, Boston, MA, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineering Research Center. Published by U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. 232 pp.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016