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Acer rubrum / Carex stricta - Onoclea sensibilis Wet Woodland
Translated Name: Red Maple / Upright Sedge - Sensitive Fern Wet Woodland
Common Name: Red Maple / Upright Sedge Wet Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL006119
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association is a partly wooded, deciduous-canopy wetland of the northeastern United States. It occurs on muck soils or mineral soils with a surface organic layer in poorly drained depressions influenced by groundwater. It is also common in those streamside and lakeside settings where the hydrology is that of a basin setting rather than a floodplain. The community is typically flooded in spring, with pools and small streams persisting throughout much of the growing season; soils may remain saturated or may become dry on the surface over the course of the growing season. Hummock-and-hollow topography may be pronounced. The canopy consists of scattered trees, with as little as 25% overall cover. The shrub layer is patchy and may be extensive in places. The herb layer is typically well-developed, with ferns and graminoids dominant. The bryophyte cover is variable. Acer rubrum is dominant in the canopy, often with many standing dead trees, and may be the only canopy species present. Associated trees may include Fraxinus nigra, Ulmus americana, and occasional Pinus strobus, Tsuga canadensis, or Picea rubens. The shrub layer is characterized by Vaccinium corymbosum, Spiraea alba var. latifolia, and Ilex verticillata. The herbaceous layer is typically dominated by the graminoids or the ferns. Sphagnum spp. are the characteristic bryophytes, with non-sphagnous mosses as associates. These woodlands are ecologically similar to both Acer rubrum / Ilex mucronata - Vaccinium corymbosum Swamp Forest (CEGL006220) and Picea rubens - Acer rubrum / Ilex mucronata Swamp Forest (CEGL006198), but those are closed-canopy wetlands. This association does not include red maple wooded wetlands on deeper peat soils [see Acer rubrum / Alnus incana - Ilex verticillata / Osmunda regalis Woodland (CEGL006395) and Acer rubrum - Fraxinus nigra - (Larix laricina) / Rhamnus alnifolia Swamp Forest (CEGL006009)].



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Na - Eastern North American-Great Plains Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Laurentian-Acadian Flooded & Swamp Forest
Group Laurentian-Acadian Acidic Swamp
Alliance Red Maple Swamp Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006009 Acer rubrum - Fraxinus nigra - (Larix laricina) / Rhamnus alnifolia Swamp Forest
CEGL006105 Acer rubrum / Carex lacustris Wet Woodland
CEGL006156 Acer rubrum / Rhododendron viscosum - Clethra alnifolia Swamp Forest
CEGL006198 Picea rubens - Acer rubrum / Ilex mucronata Swamp Forest
CEGL006220 Acer rubrum / Ilex mucronata - Vaccinium corymbosum Swamp Forest
CEGL006395 Acer rubrum / Alnus incana - Ilex verticillata / Osmunda regalis Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Acer rubrum / Carex stricta community Equivalent   Metzler and Barrett 2006
Delaware Red Maple-Tussock Sedge Wooded Marsh Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maine Red maple - sensitive fern swamp Broader   Gawler 2002
Massachusetts Red Maple Swamp Broader   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Hampshire Seasonally flooded red maple swamp Equivalent   Sperduto 2000
New York Red maple-hardwood swamp Broader Certain Edinger et al. 2002
Pennsylvania Red maple - sedge palustrine woodland Equivalent   Fike 1999
Rhode Island Red Maple Swamp Broader   Enser 1999
Vermont Red Maple-Black Ash Seepage Swamp Intersects   Thompson and Sorenson 2000


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum / Vaccinium corymbosum / Carex intumescens Alluvial Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Barrett, N., and R. Enser. 1997. Alluvial plant communities within the Wood-Pawcatuck Major Basin, Rhode Island, May 12, 1997. The Nature Conservancy, Connecticut Field Office, Middletown, CT, and The Rhode Island Natural Heritage Program, Department of Environmental Management, Providence, RI.
Related Concept Name: Red Maple: 108
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: Red maple wooded sedge/fern marsh
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.
Related Concept Name: Seasonally Flooded Red Maple Swamp
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.
Related Concept Name: Southern New England stream bottom forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.574 Northern Appalachian-Acadian Conifer-Hardwood Acidic Swamp
CES202.604 North-Central Appalachian Acidic Swamp


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3G5 (01Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT
Canadian Province Distribution: QCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This wetland is found in central and northern New England, south to Pennsylvania and New Jersey.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Green, Taconic, Berkshire Mountain Section
Section Code: M212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Catskill Mountain Section
Section Code: M212E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy consists of scattered trees, with as little as 25% overall cover. The shrub layer is patchy and may be extensive in places. The herb layer is typically well-developed, with ferns and graminoids dominant. The bryophyte cover is variable. Acer rubrum is dominant in the canopy, often with many standing dead trees. Associated trees may include Fraxinus nigra, Ulmus americana, and occasional Pinus strobus, Tsuga canadensis, or Picea rubens. The shrub layer is characterized by Vaccinium corymbosum, Spiraea alba var. latifolia (= Spiraea latifolia), and Ilex verticillata. Other shrubs may be locally common, including Ilex mucronata (= Nemopanthus mucronatus), Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides, Viburnum dentatum, Lyonia ligustrina, Alnus incana, Ilex laevigata, and the creeping Rubus hispidus. The herbaceous layer is typically dominated by the graminoids Carex stricta, Carex lacustris, or Calamagrostis canadensis or the ferns Onoclea sensibilis, Osmunda cinnamomea, or Osmunda claytoniana. Less abundant herbs include Carex intumescens, Carex folliculata, Carex canescens, Carex trisperma, Glyceria striata, Osmunda regalis, Dryopteris cristata, Thelypteris palustris, Lycopus uniflorus, Symplocarpus foetidus, Galium palustre, Cicuta bulbifera, Caltha palustris, and Impatiens capensis. Sphagnum spp. are the characteristic bryophytes, with non-sphagnous mosses as associates.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Ilex verticillata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Vaccinium corymbosum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Spiraea alba var. latifolia G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Onoclea sensibilis G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)  
 
 
Osmunda cinnamomea G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Osmunda claytoniana G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Calamagrostis canadensis G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex lacustris G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex stricta G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association is a partly wooded, deciduous-canopy wetland of central and northern New England. It occurs on muck soils or mineral soils with a surface organic layer, in poorly drained depressions influenced by groundwater. It is also common in those streamside and lakeside settings where the hydrology is that of a basin setting rather than a floodplain. The community is typically flooded in spring, with pools and small streams persisting throughout much of the growing season; soils may remain saturated, or may become dry on the surface over the course of the growing season. Hummock-and-hollow topography may be pronounced.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D.D. Sperduto and W.F. Nichols (2004)
Element Description Edition Date: 08Dec2005
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Barrett, N., and R. Enser. 1997. Alluvial plant communities within the Wood-Pawcatuck Major Basin, Rhode Island, May 12, 1997. The Nature Conservancy, Connecticut Field Office, Middletown, CT, and The Rhode Island Natural Heritage Program, Department of Environmental Management, Providence, RI.

  • CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • CDPNQ [Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec]. No date. Unpublished data. Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec, Québec.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Eichelberger, B. 2011p. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Red Maple - Sedge Palustrine Woodland Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=16049] (accessed February 15, 2012)

  • Enser, R. W., and J. A. Lundgren. 2006. Natural communities of Rhode Island. A joint project of the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Natural Heritage Program and The Nature Conservancy of Rhode Island. Rhode Island Natural History Survey, Kingston. 40 pp. [www.rinhs.org]

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.

  • Gawler, S. C., R. E. Zaremba, and Cogan Technology, Inc. 2017. Vegetation mapping inventory project: Minute Man National Historical Park, Massachusetts. Natural Resource Report NPS/MIMA/NRR--2017/1450. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Golet, F. C., A. J. K. Calhoun, W. R. DeRagon, D. J. Lowry, and A. J. Gold. 1993. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated Northeast: A community profile. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 151 pp.

  • Hunt, D. M. 1999. Natural community descriptions and specifications: Communities known or suspected from Adirondack Nature Conservancy. Unpublished report. New York Natural Heritage Program, Albany, NY. 272 pp.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford, CT.

  • Moore, B., and N. Taylor. 1927. An ecological study of the vegetation of Mount Desert Island, Maine. Brooklyn Botanical Garden Memoirs 3:1-151.

  • Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

  • Sechler, F. C., G. J. Edinger, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, E. Eastman, E. Largay, L. A. Sneddon, C. Lea, and J. Von Loh. 2014. Vegetation classification and mapping at Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites, New York. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NETN/NRTR--2014/873, National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 392 pp.

  • Sneddon, L. A., Zaremba, R. E., and M. Adams. 2010. Vegetation classification and mapping at Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. Natural Resources Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2010/147. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 481 pp. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/caco/cacorpt.pdf]

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2014. Classification of the natural communities of Massachusetts. Version 2.0. Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Westborough, MA. [http://www.mass.gov/nhesp/http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/natural-communities/classification-of-natural-communities.html]

  • Thompson, E. H., and E. R. Sorenson. 2005. Wetland, woodland, wildland: A guide to the natural communities of Vermont. The Nature Conservancy and the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. 456 pp.

  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]


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