NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Robinia pseudoacacia Ruderal Forest
Translated Name: Black Locust Ruderal Forest
Common Name: Ruderal Black Locust Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007279
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This black locust ruderal forest is found locally throughout the eastern United States. Stands often establish on old fields abandoned after agricultural cropping or pasturing or around old homesites. In some areas it occurs on post-agricultural floodplain terraces. This vegetation has also become established following the planting of Robinia pseudoacacia to stabilize and enrich nutrient-poor soils that are subject to erosion. The vegetation is dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia. Associated woody species vary from site to site and include Prunus serotina, Juniperus virginiana, Ulmus americana, Ulmus rubra, Carya ovata, Celtis occidentalis, Juglans nigra, Quercus rubra, Ulmus rubra, and in some areas Acer platanoides or Ailanthus altissima. Understory vegetation is highly variable depending on site history and often includes Toxicodendron radicans; Lindera benzoin is sometimes present. The invasive non-native Rosa multiflora may be present as a shrub, along with the non-native bramble Rubus phoenicolasius. Non-native species such as Alliaria petiolata, Chelidonium majus, Glechoma hederacea, and Convallaria majalis can characterize the herb layer, which may also have a native component.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Ruderal Forest
Group Eastern North American Native Ruderal Forest
Alliance Ruderal Tuliptree - Black Walnut - Black Locust Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006599 Prunus serotina - Liriodendron tulipifera - Acer rubrum - Fraxinus americana - (Robinia pseudoacacia) Ruderal Forest
CEGL007281 Robinia pseudoacacia - Celtis occidentalis - (Fraxinus americana, Liriodendron tulipifera) Ruderal Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Iowa Black Locust Semi-Natural Forest Equivalent Certain INAI
New York Successional Southern Hardwoods Broader Certain Edinger et al. 2002
New York Successional northern hardwoods Broader Certain Edinger et al. 2002
Oklahoma Robinia pseudoacacia woodland association Undetermined   Hoagland 2000
Pennsylvania Black Locust Forest Equivalent   Fike 1999


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Juglans nigra - Robinia pseudoacacia / Lonicera japonica / Verbesina alternifolia Association
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Robinia pseudoacacia Successional Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Successional / Modified Terrestrial Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Successional black locust disturbed forests
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.
Related Concept Name: Successional communities
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1977. Vegetation of Morristown National Historical Park: Ecological analysis and management alternatives. Final Report. USDI National Park Service Contract No. 1600-7-0004. 166 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.898 Southern Interior Low Plateau Dry-Mesic Oak Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNA (24Oct2002)
Rounded Global Status: GNA - Not Applicable
Reasons: Although Robinia pseudoacacia is a native species found in the Central Appalachians and Ozark Mountains, it does not typically become a dominant species in these natural habitats (Elias 1980). It is now widespread in the eastern U.S. in disturbed habitats. This forest represents early-successional vegetation and is thus not of high conservation concern and does not receive a conservation status rank.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AR, DCpotentially occurs, DE, IA, KY, MA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, TN, VA, VT, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This black locust ruderal forest is found locally throughout the eastern United States.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Ozark Highlands Section
Section Code: 222A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Erie and Ontario Lake Plain Section
Section Code: 222I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Vermont-New Hampshire Upland Section
Section Code: M212B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Regime Mountains
Province Name: Ouachita Mixed Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Ouachita Mountains Section
Section Code: M231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation is dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia forming a partial to nearly complete canopy. Associated woody species vary from site to site and include Prunus serotina, Juniperus virginiana, Ulmus americana, Ulmus rubra, Carya ovata, Celtis occidentalis, Juglans nigra, Quercus rubra, Ulmus rubra, Acer rubrum, Nyssa sylvatica, and in some areas Acer platanoides or Ailanthus altissima. In addition, Cornus florida may be present in the subcanopy. Understory vegetation is highly variable depending on site history and often includes Toxicodendron radicans; Lindera benzoin is sometimes present. The invasive non-natives Rosa multiflora and Elaeagnus umbellata are typically the most common shrubs, along with the non-native bramble Rubus phoenicolasius. Non-native species such as Alliaria petiolata, Chelidonium majus, Glechoma hederacea, Dactylis glomerata, Daucus carota, and Convallaria majalis can characterize the herb layer, which may have a native component as well, for example with (depending on geography) Ageratina altissima, Dichanthelium clandestinum, Elymus hystrix var. hystrix, Leersia virginica, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Pilea pumila, Solidago canadensis, Solidago rugosa, Verbesina alternifolia, Verbesina occidentalis, and Viola spp.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer platanoides GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Acer rubrum GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Ailanthus altissima GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Robinia pseudoacacia GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy
 
 
Elaeagnus umbellata GNA Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Rosa multiflora GNA Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Rubus phoenicolasius GNA Dwarf-shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Alliaria petiolata GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Chelidonium majus GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Convallaria majalis GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Daucus carota GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Glechoma hederacea GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Dactylis glomerata GNA Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This type often establishes on old fields abandoned after agricultural cropping or pasturing or around old home sites. This vegetation has also become established following the planting of Robinia pseudoacacia to stabilize and enrich nutrient-poor soils that are subject to erosion (Rabie 2000). Soils are variable and may be highly acidic, especially where established on old mine sites.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley, mod. D. Faber-Langendoen and S.C. Gawler
Element Description Edition Date: 29Jan2008
Element Description Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen, S.C. Gawler and L.A. Sneddon
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Apr2000

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Baalman, R. J. 1965. Vegetation of the Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Jet, Oklahoma. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oklahoma, Norman.

  • CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., A. L. Feldmann, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, F. C. Sechler, E. Eastman, E. Largay, and L. A. Sneddon. 2007. Vegetation classification and mapping of vegetation at Saratoga National Historical Park. Draft Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--XXXX/XXX. National Park Service, Northeast Region, Coastal Institute in Kingston, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2002. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1977. Vegetation of Morristown National Historical Park: Ecological analysis and management alternatives. Final Report. USDI National Park Service Contract No. 1600-7-0004. 166 pp.

  • Elias, T. B. 1980. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. Book Division, Times Mirror Magazines, Inc. 948 pp.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Gaertner, F. 1955. Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos L.) in field shelterbelts of western Oklahoma. Unpublished M.S. thesis, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater.

  • Gawler, S. C., R. E. Zaremba, and B. Agius. 2005. Vegetation mapping at Minute Man National Historical Park. Draft final report. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--XXXX/XXX. National Park Service. Philadelphia, PA.

  • Hoagland, B. 2000. The vegetation of Oklahoma: A classification for landscape mapping and conservation planning. The Southwestern Naturalist 45(4):385-420.

  • INAI [Iowa Natural Areas Inventory]. No date. Vegetation classification of Iowa. Iowa Natural Areas Inventory, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines.

  • Lea, C., B. Waltermire, and C. Nordman. 2013. Vegetation classification and mapping, Vicksburg National Military Park, Mississippi. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/GULN/NRTR--2013/710. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • McDonald, A. 1938. Erosion and its control in Oklahoma Territory. Miscellaneous Publication 301, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

  • NRCS [Natural Resources Conservation Service]. 2004a. Soil survey of Saratoga County, New York. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 590 pp.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008d. Vegetation classification and mapping at George Washington Birthplace National Monument, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/099. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 231 pp.

  • Rabie, P.A. 2000. Invasive nitrogen fixers. Restoration and Reclamation Review 6:6.3. [http://horticulture.coafes.umn.edu/vd/h5015/rrr.htm]

  • Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.

  • Sneddon, L. A., Zaremba, R. E., and M. Adams. 2010. Vegetation classification and mapping at Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. Natural Resources Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2010/147. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 481 pp. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/caco/cacorpt.pdf]

  • Sneddon, L., R. E. Zaremba, E. Largay, G. Podniesinski, S. Perles, and J. Thompson. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping of Morristown National Historical Park, New Jersey. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/116. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 162 pp. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/morr/morrrpt.pdf]

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • Vanderhorst, J. P., B. P. Streets, J. Jeuck, and S. C. Gawler. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping of Bluestone National Scenic River, West Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/106. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Vanderhorst, J. P., J. Jeuck, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Vegetation classification and mapping of New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR-2007/092. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 396 pp.

  • WVNHP [West Virginia Natural Heritage Program]. No date (b). Unpublished data. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016