NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Schoenoplectus pungens Marsh
Translated Name: Common Threesquare Marsh
Common Name: Common Threesquare Marsh
Unique Identifier: CEGL001587
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This bulrush wet meadow community is found in the western United States in the intermountain basins, as far north as southern British Columbia, as well as in western parts of the Great Plains north into Alberta, Canada. Stands are found along low-gradient, meandering, usually perennial streams and springs and around the margins of ponds and marshes. Substrates are generally dark, organic, fine-textured soils derived from alluvium. Schoenoplectus pungens (= Scirpus pungens) dominates the dense, 0.3- to 0.6-m tall herbaceous vegetation layer. Other species that often are present include Schoenoplectus maritimus (= Scirpus maritimus), Spartina gracilis, Hordeum jubatum, Pascopyrum smithii, Juncus balticus, Eleocharis palustris, Lemna minor, Sagittaria latifolia, and Typha spp. Stands of this association contain no tree or shrub layer, but a few scattered trees and shrubs may be present, most commonly Populus deltoides, Populus fremontii, Salix amygdaloides, Salix exigua, Salix gooddingii, Symphoricarpos occidentalis, or Sarcobatus vermiculatus.



Classification

Classification Confidence: High
Classification Comments: Muldavin et al. (2000a) described five Schoenoplectus pungens (= Scirpus pungens) community types from New Mexico. Most are codominated with an associated species listed in the vegetation description, e.g., Eleocharis palustris, Distichlis spicata, Paspalum distichum, and Equisetum laevigatum, with one being a Schoenoplectus pungens Monotype Community Type reported from the Gila River basin. Muldavin et al.'s (2000a) concept of this community type states that it can be dominated by Schoenoplectus pungens (= Scirpus pungens) or Schoenoplectus americanus (= Scirpus americanus, = Scirpus olneyi). Hansen et al. (1995) also include Schoenoplectus americanus in their Scirpus pungens Habitat Type. The range of Schoenoplectus americanus, however, does not extend into Alberta, so this may be less of an issue moving north. This association needs further review to clarify whether to include stands where Schoenoplectus pungens is not the dominant species.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nb - Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Arid West Interior Freshwater Marsh
Group Arid West Interior Freshwater Marsh
Alliance Western Emergent Bulrush Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL001478 Spartina pectinata - Schoenoplectus pungens Wet Meadow
CEGL001841 Schoenoplectus americanus Western Marsh



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Colorado Schoenoplectus pungens Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain CNHP 2015
Idaho Scirpus pungens Community Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Kansas Scirpus pungens - (Eleocharis spp.) Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Lauver et al. 1999
Montana Scirpus pungens Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain MTNHP 2002
New Mexico Scirpus pungens Monotype Finer Somewhat certain Muldavin et al. 2000
North Dakota Scirpus pungens Wetland Equivalent Certain NDNHI unpubl. data
Wyoming Scirpus pungens Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain WNDD unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Schoenoplectus pungens Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.
Related Concept Name: Scirpus pungens
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Scirpus pungens Association
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Bundy, R. M., J. V. Baumgartner, M. S. Reid, P. S. Bourgeron, H. C. Humphries, and B. L. Donohue. 1996. Ecological classification of wetland plant associations in the Lahontan Valley, Nevada. Prepared for Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge and USDI Fish & Wildlife Service. 53 pp. not including inventories, tables and graphs.
Related Concept Name: Scirpus pungens Community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Jones, G. P., and G. M. Walford. 1995. Major riparian vegetation types of eastern Wyoming. Submitted to Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. 245 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Walford, G. M. 1996. Statewide classification of riparian and wetland dominance types and plant communities - Bighorn Basin segment. Report submitted to the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, Land Quality Division by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. 185 pp.
Related Concept Name: Scirpus pungens Habitat Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.
Related Concept Name: Scirpus pungens Saline Marsh
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Thompson, W. H., and P. L. Hansen. 2002. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites of Alberta's Grasslands Natural Region and adjacent subregions. Bitterroot Restoration, Inc., Cows and Fish, Lethbridge. 416 pp.
Related Concept Name: Scirpus pungens Series
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: MTNHP [Montana Natural Heritage Program]. 1988. Draft guide to the natural vegetation of Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 389 pp.
Related Concept Name: Sharp Bulrush Marsh Site Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: MacKenzie, W. H., and J. R. Moran. 2004. Wetlands of British Columbia: A guide to identification. Land Management Handbook No. 52. Research Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Lands, Victoria, BC. 287 pp.
Related Concept Name: Threesquare Bulrush Monotype CT
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Muldavin, E., P. Durkin, M. Bradley, M. Stuever, and P. Mehlhop. 2000a. Handbook of wetland vegetation communities of New Mexico. Volumn I: Classification and community descriptions. Final report to the New Mexico Environment Department and the Environmental Protection Agency prepared by the New Mexico Natural Heritage Program, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES103.525 Eastern and Central Boreal Freshwater Emergent Marsh
CES300.729 North American Arid West Emergent Marsh
CES303.669 Western Great Plains Saline Depression Wetland
CES304.059 Inter-Mountain Basins Interdunal Swale Wetland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3G4 (09Apr1998)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AZ, CO, ID, KS, MT, ND, NM, NV, SD, UT, WY
Canadian Province Distribution: AB, BC
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This community is found in the western United States in the intermountain basins, as well as in western parts of the Great Plains, from east-central Alberta, Canada, and Montana south to Colorado, and west into Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Tropical/Subtropical Steppe Division
Province Name: Colorado Plateau Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 313 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Grand Canyon Lands Section
Section Code: 313A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Division
Province Name: Great Plains-Palouse Dry Steppe Province
Province Code: 331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northwestern Great Plains Section
Section Code: 331F Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Central High Plains Section
Section Code: 331H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Great Plains Steppe Province
Province Code: 332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Nebraska Sand Hills Section
Section Code: 332C Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Division Name: Temperate Desert Division
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert and Desert Province
Province Code: 341 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Canyon Lands Section
Section Code: 341B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Uinta Basin Section
Section Code: 341C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lahontan Basin Section
Section Code: 341E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 342 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Greater Green River Basin Section
Section Code: 342G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Uinta Mountains Section
Section Code: M331E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: North-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This widespread wetland association is characterized by a dense, 0.3- to 0.6-m tall herbaceous vegetation layer that is dominated by Schoenoplectus pungens (= Scirpus pungens). Associated species include Schoenoplectus maritimus (= Scirpus maritimus), Equisetum spp., Spartina gracilis, Distichlis spicata, Hordeum jubatum, Muhlenbergia asperifolia, Pascopyrum smithii, Juncus balticus, Eleocharis palustris, Lemna minor, Sagittaria latifolia, and Typha spp. Stands of this association contain no tree or shrub layer, but a few scattered trees and shrubs may be present, most commonly Populus deltoides, Populus fremontii, Salix amygdaloides, Salix exigua, Salix gooddingii, Symphoricarpos occidentalis, or Sarcobatus vermiculatus. The more northern stands are dominantly Schoenoplectus pungens with 50% cover or greater with no other constant or significant species.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Melilotus officinalis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Spiranthes diluvialis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Agrostis stolonifera G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Schoenoplectus pungens G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Spiranthes diluvialis
  (Ute Ladies'-tresses)
G2G3 LT: Listed threatened
Vegetation Structure Summary: Graminoids are 0.3-0.6 m tall.

Vegetation Structure
Stratum Growth Form
Height of Stratum (m)
Cover
Class
%
Min
Cover %
Max
Cover %
Herb (field) Graminoid
0.5 - 1 m
 
60
100


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Stands of this widespread association are found throughout much of the western U.S., north into British Columbia and east to Alberta, Canada, in appropriate wetland habitats. Elevations range from 1000-2400 m. Stands occur along low-gradient, meandering, usually perennial streams, along springs, around the margins of ponds and marshes, in low-lying swales, adjacent to perennial pools in intermittent washes, and abandoned or overflow channels where the soils remain saturated (Hansen et al. 1995, Jones and Walford 1995, Walford 1996, Kittel et al. 1999a). It also occurs on silt and sand bars within the active channel. Soils are generally derived from alluvium and are fine-textured or sandy, and often are black, alkaline, organic anoxic with gleying. Soils range from normal to saline with pH ranging from 7.4-9.1. Typical pH reported for Alberta stands is 8.5 (Thompson and Hansen 2002). Stands of this association have been sampled on Fluvaquents and Haplaquolls in Montana (Hansen et al. 1995). Textures of the upper soil horizons may be clay, clay loam, and sandy loam (Hansen et al. 1995, Jones and Walford 1995, Walford 1996). Loamy sand has been found deep in the soil profile (Walford 1996).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Stands of this association are flooded in the spring (Larson 1993). Schoenoplectus pungens becomes established on wet, bare sediments and often comes to dominate such sites quickly (Hansen et al. 1995).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G.P. Jones, mod. K. Schulz
Element Description Edition Date: 05Jul2006
Element Description Author(s): G.P. Jones, K. Schulz, J. Coles and L. Allen
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 28Sep1999
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • Brotherson, J. D., and S. J. Barnes. 1984. Habitat relationships of Glaux maritima in central Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 44(2):299-309.

  • Bundy, R. M., J. V. Baumgartner, M. S. Reid, P. S. Bourgeron, H. C. Humphries, and B. L. Donohue. 1996. Ecological classification of wetland plant associations in the Lahontan Valley, Nevada. Prepared for Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge and USDI Fish & Wildlife Service. 53 pp. not including inventories, tables and graphs.

  • Butler, J., D. Crawford, S. Menard, and T. Meyer. 2002. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge, South Dakota. USGS-USFWS Vegetation Mapping Program. Final report. Technical Memorandum 8260-02-02, Remote Sensing and GIS Group, Technical Service Center, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO.

  • CNHP [Colorado Natural Heritage Program]. 2003. Unpublished data. List of Elements and Elcodes converted and entered into Biotics Tracker 4.0. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

  • CNHP [Colorado Natural Heritage Program]. 2006-2015. Tracked natural plant communities. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. [http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/tracking/communities.html].

  • Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Clark, D., M. Dela Cruz, T. Clark, J. Coles, S. Topp, A. Evenden, A. Wight, G. Wakefield, and J. Von Loh. 2009. Vegetation classification and mapping project report, Capitol Reef National Park. Natural Resource Report NPS/NCPN/NRTR--2009/187. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 882 pp.

  • Coles, J., A. Tendick, G. Manis, A. Wight, G. Wakefield, J. Von Loh, and A. Evenden. 2009a. Vegetation classification and mapping project report, Arches National Park. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCPN/NRTR--2009/253. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 544 pp.

  • Coles, J., D. Cogan, D. Salas, A. Wight, G. Wakefield, J. Von Loh, and A. Evenden. 2008a. Vegetation classification and mapping project report, Dinosaur National Monument. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCPN/NRTR-2008/112. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 814 pp.

  • Driscoll, R. S., D. L. Merkel, D. L. Radloff, D. E. Snyder, and J. S. Hagihara. 1984. An ecological land classification framework for the United States. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1439. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 56 pp.

  • Gleason, H. A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY. 910 pp.

  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. 1402 pp.

  • Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.

  • Hansen, P., K. Boggs, and R. Pfister. 1991. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites in Montana. Unpublished draft version prepared for Montana Riparian Association, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula. 478 pp.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Jones, G. 1992b. Wyoming plant community classification (Draft). Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. 183 pp.

  • Jones, G. P., and G. M. Walford. 1995. Major riparian vegetation types of eastern Wyoming. Submitted to Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. 245 pp.

  • Kittel, G. M., and N. D. Lederer. 1993. A preliminary classification of the riparian vegetation of the Yampa and San Miguel/Dolores river basins. Unpublished report prepared for Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency by The Nature Conservancy, Colorado Field Office, Boulder.

  • Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.

  • Kittel, G., R. Rondeau, N. Lederer, and D. Randolph. 1994. A classification of the riparian vegetation of the White and Colorado River basins, Colorado. Final report submitted to Colorado Department of Natural Resources and the Environmental Protection Agency. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Boulder. 166 pp.

  • Larson, G. E. 1993. Aquatic and wetland vascular plants of the northern Great Plains. General Technical Report RM-238. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 681 pp.

  • Lauver, C. L., K. Kindscher, D. Faber-Langendoen, and R. Schneider. 1999. A classification of the natural vegetation of Kansas. The Southwestern Naturalist 44:421-443.

  • MTNHP [Montana Natural Heritage Program]. 1988. Draft guide to the natural vegetation of Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 389 pp.

  • MTNHP [Montana Natural Heritage Program]. 2002b. List of ecological communities for Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Montana State Library, Helena, MT.

  • MacKenzie, W. H., and J. R. Moran. 2004. Wetlands of British Columbia: A guide to identification. Land Management Handbook No. 52. Research Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Lands, Victoria, BC. 287 pp.

  • Muldavin, E., P. Durkin, M. Bradley, M. Stuever, and P. Mehlhop. 2000a. Handbook of wetland vegetation communities of New Mexico. Volumn I: Classification and community descriptions. Final report to the New Mexico Environment Department and the Environmental Protection Agency prepared by the New Mexico Natural Heritage Program, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

  • NDNHI [North Dakota Natural Heritage Inventory]. No date. Unpublished data. Vegetation classification of North Dakota. North Dakota Natural Heritage Inventory, North Dakota Parks & Recreation Department, Bismarck.

  • Neid, S., J. E. Stevens, K. Forest, and M. Fink. 2007. Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site: Vegetation classification and mapping. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/SOPN/NRTR--2007/050. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 112 pp.

  • Reid, M. S., and M. E. Hall. 2010. Vegetation classification of Grand Canyon National Park. Draft report submitted to National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Romme, W. H., K. D. Heil, J. M. Porter, and R. Fleming. 1993. Plant communities of Capitol Reef National Park, Utah. USDI National Park Service, Technical Report NPS/NAUCARE/NRTER-93/02. Cooperative Park Studies Unit, Northern Arizona University. 37 pp.

  • Thompson, W. H., and P. L. Hansen. 2002. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites of Alberta's Grasslands Natural Region and adjacent subregions. Bitterroot Restoration, Inc., Cows and Fish, Lethbridge. 416 pp.

  • Von Loh, J., D. Cogan, K. Schulz, D. Crawford, T. Meyer, J. Pennell, and M. Pucherelli. 2002. USGS-USFWS Vegetation Mapping Program, Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, Utah. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Remote Sensing and GIS Group, Technical Memorandum 8260-02-03. Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO. 225 pp.

  • WNDD [Wyoming Natural Diversity Database]. No date. Unpublished data on file. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

  • Walford, G. M. 1996. Statewide classification of riparian and wetland dominance types and plant communities - Bighorn Basin segment. Report submitted to the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, Land Quality Division by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database. 185 pp.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016