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Orontium aquaticum - Schoenoplectus subterminalis - Eriocaulon aquaticum Marsh
Translated Name: Goldenclub - Swaying Bulrush - Seven-angle Pipewort Marsh
Common Name: Goldenclub Pond
Unique Identifier: CEGL007859
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community occurs in semipermanently flooded depression ponds developed by solution and collapse of carbonate rocks underlying acidic colluvial materials deposited on the eastern edge of the Great Valley of Virginia, in Augusta County, Virginia. Tentatively, it is also ascribed to acidic sites in the Coastal Plain of Virginia and Delaware. This community is limited among these ponds to Spring Pond, a cold, permanently flooded pond with water levels constantly replenished by groundwater inputs. Orontium aquaticum is the dominant plant; other species present are Schoenoplectus subterminalis (= Scirpus subterminalis), Brasenia schreberi, Eleocharis robbinsii, Eriocaulon aquaticum, Panicum hemitomon, and Woodwardia virginica.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Examples occur at Spring Pond in the Maple Flats pond complex (Augusta County, Virginia). Beaver activity at Spring Pond needs careful monitoring and remedial action if necessary to protect this community. If water levels are raised so high that the aquatic species cannot bottom-root, then the entire community could be extirpated from the pond. While some might argue that periodic beaver impacts on such wetlands are "natural," it would be a tragedy and a great loss to Virginia's biodiversity if the finest (and possibly the only) example of this extraordinary vegetation type were destroyed.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Ne - Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain Wet Prairie & Marsh
Group Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain River & Basin Freshwater Marsh
Alliance Goldenclub - Swaying Bulrush Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Delaware Golden Club Pond Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Orontium aquaticum - Schoenoplectus subterminalis - Eriocaulon aquaticum Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Orontium aquaticum - Scirpus subterminalis - Eriocaulon aquaticum Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.
Related Concept Name: Orontium aquaticum - Scirpus subterminalis community
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and N. E. Van Alstine. 1999. Plant communities and floristic features of sinkhole ponds and seepage wetlands in southeastern Augusta County, Virginia. Banisteria 13:67-94.
Related Concept Name: Montane Depression Wetland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.018 Central Interior Highlands and Appalachian Sinkhole and Depression Pond


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (07Jan1999)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This community type is naturally rare due to its requirement for cold, permanently flooded, aquatic habitats. At most, there are only a few known occurrences of this vegetation, and not all of these are in fully natural habitats.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DE, PApotentially occurs, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is definitely known from the Maple Flats Pond complex in Augusta County, Virginia. Tentatively, the type is also ascribed to a pond in the Ridge and Valley province of Pennsylvania, and to acidic semipermanent impoundments (beaver ponds, old mill ponds) in the Coastal Plain of Virginia and Delaware.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation consists mostly of floating and submersed aquatics. Emergent species are mostly confined to somewhat shallower water along the pond edges. Orontium aquaticum is the dominant plant, seasonally covering the pond surface in great masses. Other species present are Brasenia schreberi, Eleocharis robbinsii, Eriocaulon aquaticum, Panicum hemitomon, Schoenoplectus subterminalis (= Scirpus subterminalis), and Woodwardia virginica. Rare plants present include Eleocharis robbinsii, Eriocaulon aquaticum, Panicum hemitomon, Potamogeton oakesianus, and Schoenoplectus subterminalis (= Scirpus subterminalis).


Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Eriocaulon aquaticum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Eleocharis robbinsii G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Panicum hemitomon G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Schoenoplectus subterminalis G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Orontium aquaticum G1 Aquatic herb Submerged aquatic  
 
 
Potamogeton oakesianus G1 Aquatic herb Submerged aquatic      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: At Maple Flats, this community is limited to Spring Pond (Buhlmann et al. 1999), a 2-ha (5-acre), cold, permanently flooded pond with water levels constantly replenished by groundwater inputs. The vegetation occupies a habitat with water about 1.0 m deep and a soft, organic substrate. Normally, water levels in Spring Pond are relatively constant, but have dropped occasionally to about 0.5 m during severe droughts (Buhlmann et al. 1999). In recent years, beavers have repeatedly dammed the pond outlet and raised water levels as much as 0.7 m.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G.P. Fleming and P. Coulling
Element Description Edition Date: 02Oct2001
Element Description Author(s): G. Fleming and P. Coulling
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02Oct2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G. Fleming

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Buhlmann, K. A., J. C. Mitchell, and L. R. Smith. 1999. Descriptive ecology of the Shenandoah Valley sinkhole pond system in Virginia. Banisteria 13:23-51.

  • Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009b. Classification of selected Virginia montane wetland groups. In-house analysis, December 2009. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and N. E. Van Alstine. 1999. Plant communities and floristic features of sinkhole ponds and seepage wetlands in southeastern Augusta County, Virginia. Banisteria 13:67-94.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Roble, S. M. 1999. Dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) of the Shenandoah Valley sinkhole pond system and vicinity, Augusta County, Virginia. Banisteria 13:101-127.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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