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Populus deltoides - Salix nigra / Mikania scandens Floodplain Forest
Translated Name: Eastern Cottonwood - Black Willow / Climbing Hempvine Floodplain Forest
Common Name: Southern Coastal Plain Cottonwood - Willow Riverfront Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007346
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This forest, dominated by Populus deltoides and Salix nigra, occurs in the southeastern Coastal Plain along the fronts and banks of large rivers and on islands where sediment accretes. In addition to the above-listed species, Acer rubrum, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Salix caroliniana, Betula nigra, Planera aquatica, Ulmus americana, Liquidambar styraciflua, Morus rubra, Juglans nigra, and Acer saccharinum all may be present within their ranges. Ilex opaca var. opaca, Carpinus caroliniana, Lindera benzoin, Cornus drummondii, and Forestiera acuminata may be present in the subcanopy. Depending on the maturity of the occurrence, physiognomy varies. The herb layer is sparse to dense. Distribution is not known. The western limit of distribution also is not known. Work needs to be done to determine more precisely the range of this community and to determine whether it needs to be separated into less widespread types. The ranges of the dominant species in all strata do not preclude its wide distribution.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: This community is dominated by Populus deltoides and Salix nigra in varying proportions but contributing at least 80% of the cover when combined. Other riverfront communities that have one or both of these species present will have less contribution of cover by these two species combined. Compare to its northern equivalent, Populus deltoides - Salix nigra - Acer saccharinum Floodplain Forest (CEGL002018). Kentucky examples may exhibit features of either type.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Floodplain Forest
Group Southern Ash - Elm - Willow Floodplain Forest
Alliance Coastal Plain Cottonwood - Willow Floodplain Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002018 Populus deltoides - Salix nigra - Acer saccharinum Floodplain Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Populus deltoides - Salix nigra / Mikania scandens Forest Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
Louisiana Bottomland Hardwood Forest Broader   Smith 1996
Mississippi Eastern Cottonwood - Willow Riverfront Pioneer Forest Undetermined   Wieland 1994
Tennessee Populus deltoides - Salix nigra / Mikania scandens Forest Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Black Willow: 95
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: Bottomland Hardwood Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Smith, L. M., compiler. 1996a. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 2 pp.
Related Concept Name: Brownwater Stream Floodplain Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.
Related Concept Name: Cottonwood: 63
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: Eastern Cottonwood - Willow Riverfront Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Oberholster, C. 1993. Preliminary list of natural communities of Alabama. Unpublished document. Alabama Department Conservation and Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Section, Montgomery, AL. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: IA7c. Eastern Cottonwood - Willow Riverfront Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: R1B3cI2c. Populus deltoides - Salix nigra - Celtis laevigata
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Foti, T., M. Blaney, X. Li, and K. G. Smith. 1994. A classification system for the natural vegetation of Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science 48:50-53.
Related Concept Name: R1B3cI3a. Salix nigra
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Foti, T., M. Blaney, X. Li, and K. G. Smith. 1994. A classification system for the natural vegetation of Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science 48:50-53.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.324 Southern Piedmont Large Floodplain Forest
CES203.065 Red River Large Floodplain Forest
CES203.066 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest
CES203.190 Mississippi River Riparian Forest
CES203.250 Atlantic Coastal Plain Small Brownwater River Floodplain Forest
CES203.488 West Gulf Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest
CES203.489 East Gulf Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4G5 (02Sep1999)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, AR, FL, GA, LA, MS, SCpotentially occurs, TN, TX
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This forest occurs in the southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States. The status in the lower Piedmont is undetermined.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Western Gulf Section
Section Code: 232F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Lower Mississippi Riverine Forest Province
Province Code: 234 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Mississippi Alluvial Basin Section
Section Code: 234A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Stands of this forest are dominated by Populus deltoides and Salix nigra. These two species combined contribute at least 75% of the canopy cover with each contributing 25-75% of the total and a variety of other bottomland species contributing the rest. In addition to the above-listed species, Acer rubrum, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Salix caroliniana, Betula nigra, Planera aquatica, Ulmus americana, Liquidambar styraciflua, Morus rubra, Juglans nigra, and Acer saccharinum all may be present within their ranges. Ilex opaca var. opaca, Carpinus caroliniana, Lindera benzoin, Cornus drummondii, and Forestiera acuminata may be present in the subcanopy. Depending on the maturity of the occurrence, physiognomy varies. The herb layer is sparse to dense. The exotics Microstegium vimineum, Lonicera japonica, and Ligustrum sinense are frequent invaders and may dominate the ground layer to the exclusion of native species.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer negundo G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Celtis laevigata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Platanus occidentalis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Populus deltoides G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Salix nigra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Ligustrum sinense G4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Brunnichia ovata G4 Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Campsis radicans G4 Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Toxicodendron radicans G4 Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Apios americana G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Boehmeria cylindrica G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Laportea canadensis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Mikania scandens G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Phytolacca americana G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Microstegium vimineum G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Lonicera japonica G4 Liana Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This forest occurs in the southeastern Coastal Plain along the fronts and banks of large rivers and on islands where sediment accretes. This community is found on the fronts or banks of major rivers which are better-drained than areas farther from the watercourse. It can also be found on relatively newly accreted soil at the ends of islands and stream bars. Soils are coarser-textured than those of most other bottomland communities because the heavier soil particles drop out of flood waters first; silts and clays stay suspended longer and are deposited farther from the watercourse. This community may establish itself in either Zone III or Zone IV. If it occurs in Zone III, soil accretion will move the community into Zone IV. Zone III communities experience semipermanently inundated or saturated soil from surface or groundwater during >25% of the growing season; flooding is typical during winter and spring with a 51-100% frequency, but the soil is not saturated approximately 60% of the year. Zone IV communities experience seasonal inundation or groundwater saturation for approximately 12.5-25% of the year, usually during spring and early summer with a frequency of 51-100%.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This community experiences frequent flooding of short duration. Very heavy siltation can kill enough individuals of Populus deltoides to convert the community to one dominated almost exclusively by Salix nigra. This forest often succeeds to a forest dominated by some combination of Celtis laevigata, Ulmus americana, Platanus occidentalis, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Liquidambar styraciflua. Regardless, succession in this community occurs relatively swiftly.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): S. Landaal
Element Description Edition Date: 31Jan1995
Element Description Author(s): S. Landaal

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.

  • Burns, R. M., and B. H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990b. Silvics of North America. Volume 2: Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 877 pp.

  • Clark, J. R., and J. Benforado. 1981. Introduction. Pages 1-9 in: J. R. Clark and J. Benforado, editors. Wetlands of bottomland hardwood forests. Elsevier Scientific Publications, New York.

  • Dickson, J. G., and C. A. Segelquist. 1978. Winter bird populations in pine and pine-hardwood forest stands in east Texas. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 31:134-137.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Faulkner, S. P., and W. H. Patrick, Jr. No date. Characterization of bottomland hardwood wetland transition zones in the lower Mississippi Valley. Unpublished document.

  • Foti, T., M. Blaney, X. Li, and K. G. Smith. 1994. A classification system for the natural vegetation of Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science 48:50-53.

  • Klimas, C. V. 1988b. Forest vegetation of the leveed floodplain of the lower Mississippi River. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experimental Station, Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report No. 11. Vicksburg, MS. 281 pp.

  • Klimas, C. V., C. O. Martin, and J. W. Teaford. 1981. Impacts of flooding regime modification on wildlife habitats of bottomland hardwood forests in the lower Mississippi. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experimental Station and Environmental Lab. Technical Report EL-81-13. Vicksburg, MS. 137 pp. plus appendix.

  • LNHP [Louisiana Natural Heritage Program]. 2009. Natural communities of Louisiana. Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, Louisiana Department of Wildlife & Fisheries, Baton Rouge. 46 pp. [http://www.wlf.louisiana.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/page_wildlife/6776-Rare%20Natural%20Communities/LA_NAT_COM.pdf]

  • McWilliams, W. H., and J. F. Rosson, Jr. 1990. Composition and vulnerability of bottomland hardwood forests of the Coastal Plain province in the south central United States. Forest Ecology and Management 33/34:485-501.

  • Oberholster, C. 1993. Preliminary list of natural communities of Alabama. Unpublished document. Alabama Department Conservation and Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Section, Montgomery, AL. 6 pp.

  • Putnam, J. A. 1951. Management of bottomland hardwoods. Occasional Paper No. 116. USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.

  • Putnam, J. A., G. M. Furnival, and J. S. McKnight. 1960. Management and inventory of southern hardwoods. Handbook 181. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 102 pp.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Smith, D. W., and N. E. Linnartz. 1980. The southern hardwood region. Pages 145-230 in: J. W. Barrett, editor. Regional silviculture of the United States. Second edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

  • Smith, L. M., compiler. 1996a. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 2 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • Van Auken, O. W., and J. K. Bush. 1988. Dynamics of establishment, growth, and development of black willow and cottonwood in the San Antonio River forest. Texas Journal of Science 40:269-277.

  • Wharton, C. H. 1978. The natural environments of Georgia. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Atlanta. 227 pp.

  • Wharton, C. H., W. M. Kitchens, E. C. Pendleton, and T. W. Sipe. 1982. The ecology of bottomland hardwood swamps of the Southeast: A community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services. FWS/OBS-81/37. Washington, DC.

  • Wieland, R. G. 1994b. Mississippi Natural Heritage Program: Ecological communities. Unpublished document. Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks, Museum of Natural Science, Natural Heritage Program, Jackson, MS. 7 pp.

  • Wieland, R. G. 2000b. Ecological communities of Mississippi: Mississippi Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks, Museum of Natural Science, Natural Heritage Program, Jackson, MS. 8 pp.


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