NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Juncus roemerianus Salt Marsh
Translated Name: Black Needlerush Salt Marsh
Common Name: Needlerush High Salt Marsh
Unique Identifier: CEGL004186
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This broad-ranging Juncus roemerianus salt marsh community is characterized by discrete, dense patches usually strongly dominated by Juncus roemerianus, often with few other associates, or with low cover of Distichlis spicata, Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, and Limonium carolinianum. As currently defined, this community occurs in a variety of settings in different marsh regions including both "high" and "low" marshes. For example, large expanses of this type are found in northwest Florida at or below the mean high water line. In other regions it may be found as isolated patches within high salt marsh, or may dominate vast areas at the heads of tidal creeks. In general, the prevalence of Juncus roemerianus in Florida indicates the prevalence of high marshes (above mean high water). Its hydrology is generally irregularly tidally flooded.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This community is common on the southeastern seaboard, but large undisturbed areas are of high conservation concern. Although this community exhibits little floristic variation across its range, the associated animal species may vary to a greater extent. This community may not occur west of Texas. Juncus roemerianus was found to be lower in elevation than the associated Spartina patens type and mixed type (Cooper and Waits 1973).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.5 - Salt Marsh
Division 2.C.5.Nb - North American Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Salt Marsh
Macrogroup North American Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Salt Marsh
Group Atlantic & Gulf Coastal High Salt Marsh
Alliance Black Needlerush Salt Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004190 Spartina alterniflora - Juncus roemerianus - Distichlis spicata Louisianian Zone Tidal Salt Marsh
CEGL004197 Spartina patens - Distichlis spicata - (Juncus roemerianus) Salt Marsh



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Juncus roemerianus Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
Delaware Needlerush High Marsh Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Louisiana Brackish Marsh Broader   Smith 1996
Maryland Juncus roemerianus Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011
Mississippi Irregularly Flooded Saline Marsh Broader   Wieland 1994
North Carolina Brackish Marsh (Needlerush Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012
South Carolina Brackish marsh (allard) Broader   Nelson 1986


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Juncus roemerianus Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W. 2001. Herbaceous tidal wetland communities of Maryland's eastern shore: Identification, assessment and monitoring. Report submitted to the U.S. EPA (Clean Water Act 1998 State Wetlands Protection Development Grant Program). Biodiversity Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Division. 30 June 2001. [U.S. EPA Reference Wetland Natural communities of Maryland's Herbaceous Tidal Wetlands Grant #CD993724].
Related Concept Name: Juncus roemerianus Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Bowman, P. 2000. Draft classification for Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Juncus roemerianus Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Coulling, P. P. 2002. A preliminary classification of tidal marsh, shrub swamp, and hardwood swamp vegetation and assorted non-tidal, chiefly non-maritime, herbaceous wetland communities of the Virginia Coastal Plain. October 2002. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-18. 30 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Juncus roemerianus association of the low marsh
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Adams, D. A. 1963. Factors influencing vascular plant zonation in North Carolina salt marshes. Ecology 44:445-456.
Related Concept Name: Juncus type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Cooper, A. W., and E. D. Waits. 1973. Vegetation types in an irregularly flooded salt marsh on the North Carolina Outer Banks. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 89:78-91.
Related Concept Name: Spartina - Distichlis - Juncus associes
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Penfound, W. T. 1952. Southern swamps and marshes. Botanical Review 7:413-446.
Related Concept Name: Brackish Marsh
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Smith, L. M., compiler. 1996a. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 2 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Wieland, R. G. 1994a. Marine and estuarine habitat types and associated ecological communities of the Mississippi Coast. Museum Technical Report 25. Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks, Museum of Natural Science, Jackson, MS. 270 pp.
Related Concept Name: Brackish Marsh (Needlerush Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: Irregularly flooded salt marsh
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Jenkins, D. 1974. Natural areas of the Chesapeake Bay region: Ecological priorities. Smithsonian Institute, Ecology Program, Center for Natural Areas Ecology.
Related Concept Name: Lower high marsh
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Stalter, R. 1973a. The flora of Turtle Island, Jasper Co., South Carolina. Castanea 38:35-37.
Related Concept Name: Needlerush - saltmeadow type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Nicholson, W. R., and R. D. Van Deusen. 1954. Marshes of Maryland. Maryland Game and Inland Fish Commission. Resource Study Report No. 6. Baltimore, MD.
Related Concept Name: Saline Marsh
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Wieland, R. G. 1994a. Marine and estuarine habitat types and associated ecological communities of the Mississippi Coast. Museum Technical Report 25. Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks, Museum of Natural Science, Jackson, MS. 270 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salt marsh
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Higgins, E. A. T., R. D. Rappleye, and R. G. Brown. 1971. The flora and ecology of Assateague Island. University of Maryland Experiment Station Bulletin A-172. 70 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salt marsh community
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Hill, S. R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea 5:265-305.
Related Concept Name: Smooth Cordgrass Series
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Diamond, D. D. 1993. Classification of the plant communities of Texas (series level). Unpublished document. Texas Natural Heritage Program, Austin. 25 pp.
Related Concept Name: Tidal Mesohaline / Polyhaline Marsh
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Tidal Mesohaline Marsh
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.257 Atlantic Coastal Plain Indian River Lagoon Tidal Marsh
CES203.260 Atlantic Coastal Plain Embayed Region Tidal Salt and Brackish Marsh
CES203.270 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Salt and Brackish Tidal Marsh
CES203.303 North-Central Gulf of Mexico Salt and Brackish Tidal Marsh
CES203.468 Gulf Coast Chenier Plain Salt and Brackish Tidal Marsh
CES203.471 Mississippi Delta Salt and Brackish Tidal Marsh
CES203.473 Texas Coast Salt and Brackish Tidal Marsh
CES203.508 Florida Big Bend Salt and Brackish Tidal Marsh
CES203.519 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Tidal Salt Marsh


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G5 (04Feb2009)
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This is a common coastal marsh of the Gulf and southern-central Atlantic coasts of the United States.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, DE, FL, GA, LApotentially occurs, MD, MS, NC, SC, TX, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is widespread along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America ranging from Delaware south to Florida, and west to Texas.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Eastern Gulf Prairies and Marshes Section
Section Code: 231F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Florida Coastal Lowlands (Western) Section
Section Code: 232D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Louisiana Coast Prairies and Marshes Section
Section Code: 232E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Florida Coastal Lowlands (Eastern) Section
Section Code: 232G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Prairie Division
Province Name: Prairie Parkland (Subtropical) Province
Province Code: 255 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Gulf Prairies and Marshes Section
Section Code: 255D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The very dense vegetation is typically exclusively codominated by Juncus roemerianus and Spartina alterniflora. Tall and short growth-form zones have been noted in several areas (Kruczynski et al. 1978, Hackney and de la Cruz 1982, Stout 1984, Montague and Wiegert 1990). Associates that may occur at low cover include Borrichia frutescens, Baccharis halimifolia, Spartina alterniflora, Distichlis spicata, Schoenoplectus robustus (= Scirpus robustus), Limonium carolinianum, Symphyotrichum tenuifolium (= Aster tenuifolius), Symphyotrichum subulatum (= Aster subulatus), and (in more southern occurrences) Ipomoea sagittata.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Schinus terebinthifolius G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Ptilimnium nodosum G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Juncus roemerianus G5 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Ptilimnium nodosum
  (Harperella)
G2 LE: Listed endangered
Schinus terebinthifolius
  (Brazilian Peppertree)
G3?  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Large expanses of this type are found in northwest Florida, where approximately 60% of the salt marshes consist of monospecific stands of this type. These stands extend nearly to the water's edge and may be considered low marsh (Montague and Wiegert 1990). In other regions of Florida, including northeast Florida, Indian River (central Atlantic coast), and south Florida, Juncus roemerianus occurs in smaller discrete patches of high marsh (Montague and Wiegert 1990). Presumably, this type also occurs primarily as high salt marsh along the Atlantic coast as well (Hackney and de la Cruz 1982). In Mississippi Juncus roemerianus marsh was inundated less than 5.4% of the time that any portion of the marsh was flooded (Eleuterius and Eleuterius 1979). Due to longer and more frequent periods of exposure and resulting evaporation, interstitial water salinity may be higher than more frequently inundated zones. In addition, the interstitial water salinity was generally higher and more stable than flood water (Hackney and de la Cruz 1982). A range of soil conditions may be present in this broadly defined association, but soils are generally poorly to very poorly drained. In some areas, including tall-growth zones, soils were highly organic and peaty (averaging 15 cm in depth?), while shorter zones occurred on sandy soils underlain by clay (Eleuterius and Caldwell 1984). In general, Juncus roemerianus occurs on sandy substrates (Penfound 1952). pH at the Mississippi site was 6.2 (Hackney and de la Cruz 1982).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Lynch (1941) described three types of fires: cover burns, root burns, and peat burns. Net primary productivity increased in a Juncus roemerianus marsh after a winter burn in Mississippi, but after repeated burns vigor and growth of Juncus roemerianus declined and other species began to replace it. Hackney and de la Cruz (1981) also pointed out that monospecific Juncus roemerianus marshes are more difficult to burn on such a frequent basis and may resist changes to community structure that may occur in more mixed Juncus roemerianus marshes.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Eastern Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 04Jan2008
Element Description Author(s): R.E. Evans, L.A. Sneddon and M. Pyne
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Feb2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): J. Teague

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Adams, D. A. 1963. Factors influencing vascular plant zonation in North Carolina salt marshes. Ecology 44:445-456.

  • Bowman, P. 2000. Draft classification for Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program.

  • Cooper, A. W., and E. D. Waits. 1973. Vegetation types in an irregularly flooded salt marsh on the North Carolina Outer Banks. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 89:78-91.

  • Coulling, P. P. 2002. A preliminary classification of tidal marsh, shrub swamp, and hardwood swamp vegetation and assorted non-tidal, chiefly non-maritime, herbaceous wetland communities of the Virginia Coastal Plain. October 2002. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-18. 30 pp.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Diamond, D. D. 1993. Classification of the plant communities of Texas (series level). Unpublished document. Texas Natural Heritage Program, Austin. 25 pp.

  • Eleuterius, L. N. 1976. The distribution of Juncus roemerianus in the salt marshes of North America. Chesapeake Science 17(4):289-292.

  • Eleuterius, L. N., and C. K. Eleuterius. 1979. Tide levels and salt marsh zonation. Bulletin of Marine Science 29:394-400.

  • Eleuterius, L. N., and J. D. Caldwell. 1984. Flowering phenology of tidal marsh plants in Mississippi. Castanea 49:172-179.

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Govus, T. E. 1998. Fort Pulaski National Monument Inventory. Final report. Purchase Order # 1443PX509097564. Prepared for National Park Service, Southeast Region, Atlanta, GA. 33 pp. plus appendices and maps.

  • Hackney, C. T., and A. A. de la Cruz. 1981. Effects of fire on brackish marsh communities: Management implications. Wetlands (81-09):75-86.

  • Hackney, C. T., and A. A. de la Cruz. 1982. The structure and function of brackish marshes in the north central Gulf of Mexico: A ten year case study. Pages 89-107 in: B. Gopal et al., editors. Wetlands ecology and management. National Institute of Ecology. International Science Publication, Jaipur, India.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2001. Herbaceous tidal wetland communities of Maryland's eastern shore: Identification, assessment and monitoring. Report submitted to the U.S. EPA (Clean Water Act 1998 State Wetlands Protection Development Grant Program). Biodiversity Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Division. 30 June 2001. [U.S. EPA Reference Wetland Natural communities of Maryland's Herbaceous Tidal Wetlands Grant #CD993724].

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Higgins, E. A. T., R. D. Rappleye, and R. G. Brown. 1971. The flora and ecology of Assateague Island. University of Maryland Experiment Station Bulletin A-172. 70 pp.

  • Hill, S. R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea 5:265-305.

  • Jenkins, D. 1974. Natural areas of the Chesapeake Bay region: Ecological priorities. Smithsonian Institute, Ecology Program, Center for Natural Areas Ecology.

  • Kruczynski, W. L., C. B. Subrahmanyam, and S. H. Drake. 1978. Studies on the plant community of a north Florida salt marsh. Bulletin of Marine Science 28:707-715.

  • LNHP [Louisiana Natural Heritage Program]. 2009. Natural communities of Louisiana. Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, Louisiana Department of Wildlife & Fisheries, Baton Rouge. 46 pp. [http://www.wlf.louisiana.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/page_wildlife/6776-Rare%20Natural%20Communities/LA_NAT_COM.pdf]

  • Lynch, J. J. 1941. The place of burning in management of Gulf Coast wildlife refuges. Journal of Wildlife Management 5:454-457.

  • Montague, C. L., and R. G. Wiegert. 1990. Salt marshes. Pages 481-516 in: R. L. Myers and J. J. Ewel, editors. Ecosystems of Florida. University of Central Florida Press, Orlando.

  • Nelson, J. B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina: Initial classification and description. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Columbia, SC. 55 pp.

  • Nicholson, W. R., and R. D. Van Deusen. 1954. Marshes of Maryland. Maryland Game and Inland Fish Commission. Resource Study Report No. 6. Baltimore, MD.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Penfound, W. T. 1952. Southern swamps and marshes. Botanical Review 7:413-446.

  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. 2003b. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain communities. March 2003 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Smith, L. M., compiler. 1996a. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 2 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Stalter, R. 1973a. The flora of Turtle Island, Jasper Co., South Carolina. Castanea 38:35-37.

  • Stalter, R. 1973b. Factors influencing the distribution of vegetation of the Cooper River Estuary. Castanea 38:18-24.

  • Stout, J. P. 1984. The ecology of irregularly flooded salt marshes of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico: A community profile. USDI Fish and Wildlife Service, Minerals Management Service. Biological Report 85 (7.1). 98 pp.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1995c. NBS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Vegetation classification of Assateague Island National Seashore. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.

  • Wieland, R. G. 1994a. Marine and estuarine habitat types and associated ecological communities of the Mississippi Coast. Museum Technical Report 25. Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks, Museum of Natural Science, Jackson, MS. 270 pp.

  • Wieland, R. G. 1994b. Mississippi Natural Heritage Program: Ecological communities. Unpublished document. Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks, Museum of Natural Science, Natural Heritage Program, Jackson, MS. 7 pp.

  • Wieland, R. G. 2000b. Ecological communities of Mississippi: Mississippi Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks, Museum of Natural Science, Natural Heritage Program, Jackson, MS. 8 pp.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016