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Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa / Cornus sericea / Impatiens capensis Riparian Forest
Translated Name: Black Cottonwood / Red-osier Dogwood / Orange Jewelweed Riparian Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL003408
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This mid-seral association occurs on floodplains along the middle reaches of the lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington, and perhaps other large rivers in western Washington. Soils are anoxic silt loams and are subject to daily freshwater tidal inundation and seasonal riparian flooding. Stands are laced with dendritic tidal creeks and sloughs that enable daily tidal flooding into the interior of stands. Topography is flat to undulating, with local microrelief caused by logs, stumps, and soil interspersed among seasonally to permanently flooded pools. Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa is the dominant and often the only tree, with lesser amounts of Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra and Fraxinus latifolia. The often nearly impenetrable shrub layer is dominated by Cornus sericea, Rubus spectabilis, and Rubus ursinus. The somewhat sparse herb layer is dominated by Impatiens capensis, sometimes codominated by Carex leptopoda or Lysichiton americanus.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Ng - Vancouverian Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Vancouverian Flooded & Swamp Forest
Group North-Central Pacific Lowland Riparian Forest
Alliance Oregon Ash - Black Cottonwood - Alder Riparian Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Oregon Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa / Cornus sericea / Lysichiton americanus Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa / Cornus stolonifera / Impatiens capensis community type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kunze, L. M. 1994. Preliminary classification of native, low elevation, freshwater wetland vegetation in western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. 120 pp.
Related Concept Name: Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa / Cornus sericea / Impatiens capensis Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES204.869 North Pacific Lowland Riparian Forest and Shrubland
CES204.875 North Pacific Intertidal Freshwater Wetland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (21Oct2002)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: There are 3 known occurrences in Oregon and an estimated 4 in Washington. Remnant stands probably occupy less than 100 acres. This association was probably never widespread, and losses to pulpwood logging, dredge spoils, and agriculture are estimated to be as much as 90%. Perennially saturated soils and proximity to major riparian flooding are required conditions for this association. These sites are thought to be declining because of cessation of seasonal flooding from flood control dams, and invasion of exotic species. Sites in protected areas are not managed appropriately. These stands will decline and probably survive only as small relicts because of flood control.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: OR, WA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is thought to be centered along the lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington, and perhaps some of the larger rivers in western Washington.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Marine Regime Mountains
Province Name: Cascade Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Oregon and Washington Coast Ranges Section
Section Code: M242A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa is the dominant and often the only tree, with lesser amounts of Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra and Fraxinus latifolia. The often nearly impenetrable shrub layer is dominated by Cornus sericea, Rubus spectabilis, and Rubus ursinus. The somewhat sparse herb layer is dominated by Impatiens capensis, sometimes codominated by Carex leptopoda (= Carex deweyana ssp. leptopoda) or Lysichiton americanus.


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This mid-seral association occurs on floodplains along the middle reaches of the lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington, and perhaps other large rivers in western Washington. Soils are anoxic silt loams and are subject to daily freshwater tidal inundation and seasonal riparian flooding. Stands are laced with dendritic tidal creeks and sloughs that enable daily tidal flooding into the interior of stands. Topography is flat to undulating, with local microrelief caused by logs, stumps, and soil interspersed among seasonally to permanently flooded pools.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): L.M. Kunze (1994)
Element Description Edition Date: 21Oct2002
Element Description Author(s): J.A. Christy
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): J.A. Christy

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Christy, J. A. 2001a. Low-elevation Sphagnum wetlands in western Oregon. Report to Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland. 90 pp.

  • Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.

  • Christy, J. A., and J. A. Putera. 1993. Lower Columbia River Natural Area Inventory, 1992. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland. 75 pp.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Kunze, L. M. 1994. Preliminary classification of native, low elevation, freshwater wetland vegetation in western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. 120 pp.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


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Data last updated: March 2019