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Picea engelmannii / Senecio triangularis Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Engelmann Spruce / Arrowleaf Ragwort Swamp Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL000376
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This forest association is known from the northern and central portions of the Blue Mountains ecoregion of Oregon but may also occur in the East Cascades ecoregion. It is found on mid-elevation bars, floodplains, and springs. Sampled sites are in moderate- to moderately high-gradient, very narrow to broad, generally, trough-shaped valleys with gentle to moderately steep sideslopes. This association develops on coarse alluvial deposits of sands, gravels, cobbles, and boulders. Silt loam or sandy loam is usually deposited on top of these coarse layers. Mean depth to the water table is 25 cm in June-July; the spring where sampled was wet the entire growing season. Soil surface cover of rock and gravel approaches 20% in this type. Rosgen stream types of B3 and C3 are associated with sampled areas. Stream widths vary from 1.5 to 5 m. Picea engelmannii is the sole overstory tree with an occasional Pinus contorta, Pseudotsuga menziesii, or Abies grandis in the understory. Picea engelmannii regeneration is scattered in stands but abundant where a light spruce overstory is present. Ribes lacustre is present on all sites. Alnus incana, Ribes hudsonianum, Cornus sericea ssp. sericea, and Rosa gymnocarpa are frequent understory shrubs. The diverse understory is characterized by the wet-site forb Senecio triangularis, with mean canopy coverage of 48%. Other important forbs include Galium triflorum, Saxifraga odontoloma, Streptopus amplexifolius, Aconitum columbianum, Veronica americana, Parnassia fimbriata, Claytonia cordifolia, Heracleum maximum, Angelica arguta, and Thalictrum occidentale. Frequent grass and sedge components include Cinna latifolia, Bromus vulgaris, and Carex disperma. Height of the shrub layer averages 0.9 m. Height of the herbaceous layer averages 102 cm, ranging from 91-122 cm. Average herbaceous biomass is 1878 lbs/acre, ranging from 567-3967 lbs/acre. The frequent occurrence of Alnus incana and Ribes species demonstrates that this association in probably in transition from Alnus incana / Ribes (inerme, hudsonianum, lacustre) Wet Shrubland (CEGL001151). As sites receive more fine-textured floodplain materials, the site potential may change to another Picea engelmannii association such as Picea engelmannii / Clintonia uniflora Forest (CEGL000360). Severe fires that kill the spruce overstory will leave CEGL001151 as the dominant on the site again. Flood scour that removes fine-textured surface materials, especially following a severe fire, will transition the site back to CEGL001151 until the floodplain starts rebuilding and provides establishment sites for Picea engelmannii.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nc - Rocky Mountain-Great Basin Montane Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Rocky Mountain-Great Basin Montane Riparian & Swamp Forest
Group Rocky Mountain-Great Basin Montane Riparian & Swamp Forest
Alliance Subalpine Fir - Engelmann Spruce Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002663 Abies lasiocarpa - Picea engelmannii / Mertensia ciliata Swamp Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Oregon Picea engelmannii / Senecio triangularis Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Picea engelmannii / Senecio triangularis
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.
Related Concept Name: Picea engelmannii / Senecio triangularis Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES306.833 Rocky Mountain Subalpine-Montane Riparian Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3Q (01Feb1996)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: OR
Global Distribution: United States

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Idaho Batholith Section
Section Code: M332A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Crowe et al. (2004)
Element Description Edition Date: 05Jul2018
Element Description Author(s): Crowe et al. (2004)

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • Cole, D. N. 1977b. Man's impact on wilderness: An example from Eagle Cap Wilderness, northeastern Oregon. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 307 pp.

  • Cole, D. N. 1982. Vegetation of two drainages in Eagle Cap Wilderness, Wallowa Mountains, Oregon. Research Paper INT-288. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 26 pp.

  • Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]

  • Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


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