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Pinus virginiana - Quercus falcata - Carya pallida Forest
Translated Name: Virginia Pine - Southern Red Oak - Sand Hickory Forest
Common Name: Inland Dune Ridge Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006354
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This xeric pine forest of the central Atlantic Coastal Plain occurs on inland sand dune ridges. Pinus virginiana is codominant with a variety of oak species, including Quercus falcata, Quercus nigra, Quercus alba, Quercus stellata, and Quercus velutina. Carya pallida and Carya alba (= Carya tomentosa) can also occur. Other canopy and subcanopy associates may include Sassafras albidum, Pinus taeda, Quercus prinus, Quercus marilandica, Prunus serotina, Cornus florida, Nyssa sylvatica, and Diospyros virginiana. The shrub layer may include Gaylussacia frondosa, Ilex opaca, Vaccinium pallidum (= Vaccinium vacillans), Gaylussacia baccata, Kalmia angustifolia, Comptonia peregrina, and Vaccinium stamineum. The herbaceous layer is generally sparse, but is more abundant in openings. Characteristic herbs may include Cypripedium acaule, Carex tonsa, Carex nigromarginata, Carex albicans, Carex albicans var. emmonsii (= Carex emmonsii), Tephrosia virginiana, Tephrosia spicata, Dichanthelium commutatum, Dichanthelium ovale, Chimaphila maculata, Melampyrum lineare, and Mitchella repens. Less frequent species may include Euphorbia ipecacuanhae, Baptisia tinctoria, Lupinus perennis, Pteridium aquilinum, Chimaphila umbellata, Monotropa uniflora, and Desmodium strictum. Lichens of the genera Cladonia and Cladina are common. Vines such as Smilax glauca, Smilax rotundifolia, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Vitis rotundifolia are common at low cover.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: J. Harrison (pers. comm. 2006) states: "Most of the stands observed in Maryland are dominated by Pinus virginiana, which is believed to be artificial due to past clearing. The concept is similar to stands in the Pocomoke River watershed, Maryland, which are dominated by Pinus echinata. Tephrosia spicata and Lupinus perennis are rare in Maryland and usually confined to dry, artificially open habitats such as old logging roads and sandy roadsides."

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Northeastern Oak - Hickory Forest & Woodland
Alliance Mid-Atlantic Paleodune Dry Oak - Sand Hickory Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006851 Pinus echinata / Quercus (falcata, nigra) / Vaccinium pallidum Forest
CEGL007119 Pinus virginiana - Pinus (rigida, echinata) - (Quercus prinus) / Vaccinium pallidum Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Delaware Inland Dune Ridge Forest Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Carya pallida / Quercus margarettiae / Opuntia humifusa - Carex umbellata Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Pinus (taeda, virginiana) - Quercus spp. - Carya pallida Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Bartgis, R. 1986. Natural community descriptions. Unpublished draft. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis.
Related Concept Name: Pinus virginiana - Quercus falcata - Carya pallida Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pinus virginiana - Quercus spp. - Carya pallida Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.
Related Concept Name: Fluvial Terrace Woodland
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Inland Sand Dune and Ridge Woodland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.475 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Hardwood Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNR (01Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DE, MD, NJ, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is currently described from Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, and Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This xeric pine forest occurs on inland sand dune ridges.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): L.A. Sneddon and A. Berdine, mod. L.A. Sneddon and P. Bowman
Element Description Edition Date: 10Dec2003

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bartgis, R. 1986. Natural community descriptions. Unpublished draft. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis.

  • Berdine, M. A. 1998. Maryland vegetation classification. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, MD.

  • Bowman, P. 2000. Draft classification for Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program.

  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Harrison, Jason W. Personal communication. State Community Ecologist, Maryland Wildlife and Heritage Division, Department of Natural Resources, Tawes State Office Building, E-1, Annapolis, MD 21401.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Windisch, A. G. Personal communication. Ecologist, New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Lands Management, Trenton, NJ.


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