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Pinus elliottii var. elliottii - (Pinus palustris) / Ilex vomitoria - Serenoa repens - Morella cerifera Woodland
Translated Name: Slash Pine - (Longleaf Pine) / Yaupon - Saw Palmetto - Wax-myrtle Woodland
Common Name: Maritime Slash Pine - Longleaf Pine Upland Flatwoods
Unique Identifier: CEGL004658
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This maritime-influenced, upland Pinus elliottii var. elliottii woodland occurs on barrier islands and near-coastal areas of the East Gulf Coastal Plain and adjacent South Atlantic region. In addition to Pinus elliottii var. elliottii, stands sometimes contain an admixture of Pinus palustris. In the past, canopy structure in natural stands was open, but now it varies to a more closed structure. A subcanopy is sometimes present and can include Quercus virginiana, Quercus geminata, Quercus hemisphaerica, and Magnolia grandiflora. Typical understory species include Ilex vomitoria, Serenoa repens, and Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera). Other common shrubs and woody vines are Smilax bona-nox, Smilax auriculata, Smilax laurifolia, Rhus copallinum var. leucantha, Vitis rotundifolia, Vaccinium arboreum, and Persea borbonia. The herb stratum is typically poorly developed but may include Solidago odora var. odora and Tragia urens. On a southern Georgia barrier island, at the Cumberland Island National Seashore, the sparse herb layer contains occasional species expected from more open longleaf pine uplands, including Aristida lanosa, Liatris sp., and Sorghastrum secundum. In northeastern Florida, at the Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve, dead and dying Persea borbonia indicate that these maritime flatwoods are being affected by laurel wilt, which is caused by a vascular wilt fungus that is transmitted to species in the Lauraceae family via the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus).



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This association is described from the eastern end of Dauphin Island, Mobile County, Alabama, where it occurs on the Audubon preserve. There is a report from the Louisiana Gulf Coast Prairies and Marshes (TNC Ecoregion 31) of a community dominated by Pinus elliottii with Quercus stellata and Quercus virginiana (L. Smith pers. comm.).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.1 - Warm Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.1.Na - Southeastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Longleaf Pine Woodland
Group Mesic Longleaf Pine Flatwoods - Spodosol Woodland
Alliance Southern Coastal Plain Mesic Longleaf Pine Flatwoods

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004680 Pinus elliottii var. elliottii / Serenoa repens - Ilex glabra - Morella cerifera - Ilex vomitoria Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Pinus elliottii var. elliottii / Ilex vomitoria - Serenoa repens - Morella cerifera Woodland Equivalent Certain ALNHP unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Xeric Flatwoods
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Carr, S. C., K. M. Robertson, and R. K. Peet. 2010. A vegetation classification of fire-dependent pinelands of Florida. Castanea 75(2):153-189.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.375 East Gulf Coastal Plain Near-Coast Pine Flatwoods
CES203.503 East Gulf Coastal Plain Maritime Forest
CES203.537 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Maritime Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2G3 (25Jun1997)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This upland barrier island slash pine woodland association is found in a restricted range and specific set of habitat conditions. This association is restricted to the East Gulf Coastal Plain (and adjacent South Atlantic region) and is only found on barrier islands and near-coastal mainland areas. The canopy may contain some longleaf pine; the canopy structure of natural stands would be more open, but now usually manifests a more closed structure. This vegetation depends on frequent, low-intensity, growing-season fires to control understory vegetation and for the reproduction of the canopy pines. This native fire-dependent, pine-dominated woodland is susceptible to the effects of fire suppression, over-grazing, or conversion to commercial forest plantations or agriculture. Remaining examples are highly threatened by development, conversion, and alteration of fire regimes. Nearly all remaining examples have been altered or fragmented by coastal and near-coastal development, as well as by resultant fire exclusion.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is restricted to the East Gulf Coastal Plain and adjacent South Atlantic region.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Florida Coastal Lowlands (Western) Section
Section Code: 232D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Florida Coastal Lowlands (Eastern) Section
Section Code: 232G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Pinus elliottii var. elliottii dominates, sometimes with an admixture of Pinus palustris. In the past, canopy structure in natural stands was open, but now it varies to a more closed structure. At Cumberland Island National Seashore, a barrier island in southeastern Georgia, even-aged old-growth Pinus palustris is the exclusive canopy species. A subcanopy is sometimes present and can include Quercus virginiana, Quercus geminata, Quercus hemisphaerica, and Magnolia grandiflora. Typical understory species include Ilex vomitoria, Serenoa repens, and Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera). Other common shrubs and woody vines are Smilax bona-nox, Smilax auriculata, Smilax laurifolia, Rhus copallinum var. leucantha, Vitis rotundifolia, Vaccinium arboreum, and Persea borbonia. The herb stratum is typically poorly developed but may include Solidago odora var. odora and Tragia urens.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Pinus elliottii var. elliottii G2 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus palustris G2 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Morella cerifera G2 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Sideroxylon tenax G2 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Serenoa repens G2 Palm shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Ilex vomitoria G2 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Tridens carolinianus G2 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Sideroxylon tenax
  (Tough Bumelia)
G3?  
Tridens carolinianus
  (Carolina Fluffgrass)
G3G4  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This maritime upland woodland occurs on stabilized upland dunes on barrier islands and near-coastal mainland areas on the East Gulf Coastal Plain and adjacent South Atlantic region.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: In northeastern Florida, at the Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve, dead and dying Persea borbonia indicate that these maritime flatwoods are being affected by laurel wilt, which is caused by a vascular wilt fungus that is transmitted to species in the Lauraceae family via the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Carr et al. (2010)
Element Description Edition Date: 06Oct2008
Element Description Author(s): C.W. Nordman, H. Summer and L. Kruse
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Jun1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): Southeastern Ecology Group

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • ALNHP [Alabama Natural Heritage Program]. No date. Unpublished data on file. Alabama Natural Heritage Program, Auburn University.

  • Carr, S. C., K. M. Robertson, and R. K. Peet. 2010. A vegetation classification of fire-dependent pinelands of Florida. Castanea 75(2):153-189.

  • Hillestad, H. O., J. R. Bozeman, A. S. Johnson, C. W. Berisford, and J. I. Richardson. 1975. The ecology of the Cumberland Island National Seashore, Camden County, Georgia. Technical Report Series No. 75-5. Georgia Marine Sciences Center, Skidway Island, GA.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Smith, Latimore M. Personal communication. Natural Heritage Program Ecologist. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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