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Carex (interior, hystericina, flava) - Trichophorum alpinum / Campylium stellatum Fen
Translated Name: (Inland Sedge, Bottlebrush Sedge, Yellow Sedge) - Alpine Bulrush / Star Campylium Moss Fen
Common Name: Northern Sloping Fen
Unique Identifier: CEGL006331
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: These are rich, sedge-dominated fens of shallow slopes or small basins, scattered across New England. Most are in calcareous bedrock areas, or over calcium-bearing till where drainage is impeded. The soils remain saturated due to groundwater seepage, and the setting ranges from slightly sloping to flat. The substrate pH is usually 6.5-7.5. Settings include calcium-influenced catchment basins, headwater areas, and grazed pastures. Unlike fens developing in more extensive basin peatlands, these have only shallow peat (almost always <1 m, often <15 cm deep). The vegetation is strongly dominated by the well-developed herb layer. Trees are essentially absent (at some sites occasional small Thuja occidentalis are present), and shrubs are sparse. Bryophytes are extensive, in many cases forming the substrate for the vascular plants. Cornus sericea is the most frequent shrub, although it is rarely abundant; other characteristic shrubs include Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda, Rhamnus alnifolia, and Salix candida. The more ubiquitous Alnus incana, Salix discolor, and Salix lucida may also occur. The dominant sedge cover is composed of a variety of species, usually some combination of Carex aquatilis, Carex aurea, Carex castanea, Carex flava, Carex interior, Carex hystericina, Carex lasiocarpa, Carex leptalea, Carex prairea, Carex sterilis, Eleocharis tenuis, Eriophorum virginicum, Eriophorum viridicarinatum, Rhynchospora alba, and Trichophorum alpinum. Muhlenbergia glomerata is a characteristic grass. Other associated herbs include Cypripedium reginae, Drosera rotundifolia, Geum rivale, Lobelia kalmii, Packera aurea, Packera schweinitziana, Parnassia glauca, Platanthera dilatata, Platanthera hyperborea, Platanthera psycodes, Solidago uliginosa, Thalictrum pubescens, and Thelypteris palustris. Bryophytes are mostly non-sphagnous, with Campylium stellatum the most characteristic, and usually abundant, species. Others include Aulacomnium palustre, Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Calliergon giganteum, Calliergon trifarium, Meesia triquetra, Paludella squarrosa, Philonotis fontana, Scorpidium scorpioides, Sphagnum warnstorfii, and Tomentypnum nitens. This associations may be distinguished from rich fens of more southern or western regions by the presence of subboreal species such as Trichophorum alpinum and the absence of species such as Morella pensylvanica, Juniperus virginiana, and Cornus racemosa.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.2 - Temperate to Polar Bog & Fen
Division 2.C.2.Na - North American Bog & Fen
Macrogroup North American Boreal & Subboreal Alkaline Fen
Group Eastern North American Subboreal Alkaline Fen
Alliance Eastern Boreal Medium Rich Graminoid Fen

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL005140 Dasiphora fruticosa / Carex interior - Carex flava - Sarracenia purpurea Fen
CEGL006123 Cornus racemosa / Carex (sterilis, aquatilis, lacustris) Fen
CEGL006326 Dasiphora fruticosa / Carex (sterilis, hystericina, flava) Fen



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
New Hampshire Calcareous sedge - moss fen Equivalent   Sperduto 2000
New York Rich graminoid fen Equivalent   Edinger et al. 2002
Vermont Rich Fen Broader   Thompson and Sorenson 2000


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Mixed short-sedge seepage fen
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: NAP [Northern Appalachian-Boreal Forest Working Group]. 1998. Northern Appalachian-Boreal Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.585 Laurentian-Acadian Alkaline Fen


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2G3 (13Nov1997)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This "fen" vegetation type is restricted to the Northern Appalachian region where it is associated with areas or limestone or other calcareous bedrock . Areas meeting these conditions are generally found within the Northern Green Mountains, Vermont piedmont and some parts of the White Mountains. The 23 occurrences tracked by the state heritage data bases range in size from 0.5 to 10 acres. A recent analysis suggest that 6 to 9 of these are either too small or occur in to degraded of a landscape to confidently be considered viable. There is some evidence that the distribution of fens was actually expanded by grazing at the turn-of-the-century is now contracting as the forest landscape returns.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NH, NY, VT
Canadian Province Distribution: QCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: Canada, United States

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: White Mountain Section
Section Code: M212A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Vermont-New Hampshire Upland Section
Section Code: M212B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Green, Taconic, Berkshire Mountain Section
Section Code: M212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Adirondack Mountain Section
Section Code: M212D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Tug Hill Plateau Section
Section Code: M212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation is strongly dominated by the well-developed herb layer. Trees are essentially absent (at some sites occasional small Thuja occidentalis are present), and shrubs are sparse. Bryophytes are extensive, in many cases forming the substrate for the vascular plants. Cornus sericea is the most frequent shrub, although it is rarely abundant; other characteristic shrubs include Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda (= Pentaphylloides floribunda), Rhamnus alnifolia, and Salix candida. The more ubiquitous Alnus incana, Salix discolor, and Salix lucida may also occur. The dominant sedge cover is composed of a variety of species, usually some combination of Carex aquatilis, Carex aurea, Carex castanea, Carex flava, Carex interior, Carex hystericina, Carex lasiocarpa, Carex leptalea, Carex prairea, Carex sterilis, Eleocharis tenuis, Eriophorum virginicum, Eriophorum viridicarinatum, Rhynchospora alba, and Trichophorum alpinum. Muhlenbergia glomerata is a characteristic grass. Other associated herbs include Cypripedium reginae, Drosera rotundifolia, Geum rivale, Lobelia kalmii, Packera aurea (= Senecio aureus), Packera schweinitziana (= Senecio robbinsii), Parnassia glauca, Platanthera dilatata, Platanthera hyperborea, Platanthera psycodes, Solidago uliginosa, Thalictrum pubescens, and Thelypteris palustris. Bryophytes are mostly non-sphagnous, with Campylium stellatum the most characteristic, and usually abundant, species. Others include Aulacomnium palustre, Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Calliergon giganteum, Calliergon trifarium, Meesia triquetra, Paludella squarrosa, Philonotis fontana, Scorpidium scorpioides, Sphagnum warnstorfii, and Tomentypnum nitens.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Carex flava G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex hystericina G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex interior G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Trichophorum alpinum G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Campylium stellatum G2 Moss Nonvascular  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: These are rich, sedge-dominated fens of shallow slopes or small basins, scattered across New England. Most are in calcareous bedrock areas, or over calcium-bearing till where drainage is impeded. The soils remain saturated due to groundwater seepage, and the setting ranges from slightly sloping to flat. The substrate pH is usually 6.5-7.5. Settings include calcium-influenced catchment basins, headwater areas, and grazed pastures. Unlike fens developing in more extensive basin peatlands, these have only shallow peat (almost always <1 m, often <15 cm deep).


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Northern Appalachian Planning Team
Element Description Edition Date: 28Jan2003
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 13Nov1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Anderson

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • CDPNQ [Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec]. No date. Unpublished data. Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec, Québec.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • NAP [Northern Appalachian-Boreal Forest Working Group]. 1998. Northern Appalachian-Boreal Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • Olivero, A. M. 2001. Classification and mapping of New York's calcareous fen communities. New York Natural Heritage Program. Report prepared for The Nature Conservancy - Central/Western New York Chapter, Albany, NY. June 2001. 28 pp. plus appendices.

  • Sperduto, D. D., W. F. Nichols, and N. Cleavitt. 2000a. Bogs and fens of New Hampshire. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory, Concord, NH.

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • Thompson, E. H., and E. R. Sorenson. 2005. Wetland, woodland, wildland: A guide to the natural communities of Vermont. The Nature Conservancy and the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. 456 pp.


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