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Quercus rubra / (Vaccinium simulatum, Rhododendron calendulaceum) / (Dennstaedtia punctilobula, Thelypteris noveboracensis) Forest
Translated Name: Northern Red Oak / (Upland Highbush Blueberry, Flame Azalea) / (Eastern Hay-scented Fern, New York Fern) Forest
Common Name: Southern Appalachian High-Elevation Red Oak Forest (Deciduous Shrub Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL007300
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community includes forest vegetation with Quercus rubra making up at least 75% of the tree canopy and with greater than 20% shrub cover, which may be continuous to patchy. More than 50% of the total shrub cover is deciduous, although evergreen shrubs may be present. Typical shrub dominants include Rhododendron calendulaceum, Vaccinium simulatum, Vaccinium erythrocarpum, Ilex montana, Gaylussacia ursina, Rubus canadensis, Corylus cornuta, and Lyonia ligustrina. The herbaceous stratum is diverse and is predominantly a mix of sedges, ferns, and tall herbs, including Ageratina altissima var. roanensis, Athyrium filix-femina ssp. asplenioides, Clintonia umbellulata, Collinsonia canadensis, Conopholis americana, Dennstaedtia punctilobula, Dioscorea villosa, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Laportea canadensis, Lysimachia quadrifolia, Medeola virginiana, Monarda fistulosa, Oclemena acuminata (= Aster acuminatus), Potentilla canadensis, Prenanthes roanensis, Silene stellata, Solidago curtisii (= Solidago caesia var. curtisii), and Thelypteris noveboracensis. Herbaceous dominance varies within and between occurrences. This community occurs on most of the major mountain ranges of the Southern Appalachians at elevations of 1070-1525 m (3500-5000 feet) on broad ridges and mid to upper slope positions, commonly with southeastern and southern exposures. At higher elevations this forest often occurs adjacent to or grades into forests dominated by Picea rubens, Abies fraseri, or northern hardwood species such as Aesculus flava, Betula alleghaniensis, and Fagus grandifolia. In some areas, this community is found adjacent to montane shrublands and grasslands. At low elevations, on dry sites, this community may grade into forests dominated by a mixture of Quercus species.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This community includes forest vegetation with Quercus rubra making up at least 75% of the tree canopy and with greater than 20% shrub cover. More than 50% of the total shrub cover is deciduous, although evergreen shrubs may be present. Typical deciduous shrub species in this community include Rhododendron calendulaceum, Vaccinium simulatum, Vaccinium erythrocarpum, Ilex montana, Gaylussacia ursina, Rubus canadensis, Corylus cornuta, and Lyonia ligustrina. The most constant species (>70%) in 43 plot samples classified as this association from North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia, in descending order of constancy, are Quercus rubra, Acer rubrum, Castanea dentata, Acer pensylvanicum, Rhododendron calendulaceum, Thelypteris noveboracensis, Dioscorea quaternata, Medeola virginiana, Ilex montana, and Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Fleming and Patterson 2009a).

Two varieties of Quercus rubra occur within the range of this community, Quercus rubra var. ambigua and Quercus rubra var. rubra (Kartesz 1999). Although the two varieties are known to occur together (Rohrer 1983), Quercus rubra var. ambigua occurs mostly at elevations greater than 1000 m (3300 feet), while Quercus rubra var. rubra occurs at elevations less than 1000 m (3300 feet) (Weakley 1997). The two varieties are based upon morphological differences in the leaves and acorns (Fernald 1950, Coker and Totten 1945); however, studies of foliar flavonoid composition in different Quercus rubra populations suggest that varietal distinction may not be warranted (McDougal and Parks 1984). Even though most studies of Quercus rubra-dominated vegetation do not distinguish Quercus rubra at the varietal level, it is likely, given the elevational range of this community, that the dominant species in this forest is Quercus rubra var. ambigua.

Similar vegetation may occur in the Cumberland Mountains (Black Mountain, Cumberland Mountain, Kentucky); for more information, see Braun (1950) and Black Mountain paper (Braun 1940). Kentucky occurrences lack Gaylussacia ursina, Corylus cornuta, Prenanthes roanensis, and occur at 1067 to 1160 m (3500-3800 feet) elevation (M. Evans pers. comm.).


Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Appalachian Oak / Chestnut Forest
Alliance Montane Oak Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006192 Quercus rubra - Acer rubrum / Pyrularia pubera / Thelypteris noveboracensis Forest
CEGL007295 Quercus alba / Kalmia latifolia Forest
CEGL007298 Quercus rubra / Carex pensylvanica - Ageratina altissima var. roanensis Forest
CEGL007299 Quercus rubra / (Kalmia latifolia, Rhododendron catawbiense, Rhododendron maximum) / Galax urceolata Forest
CEGL008506 Quercus rubra - (Quercus alba) / Ilex montana / Dennstaedtia punctilobula - Lysimachia quadrifolia Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Kentucky Cumberland Highlands Forest Broader   Evans 1991
North Carolina High Elevation Red Oak Forest (Typic Herb Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Corylus cornuta Phase
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: DeLapp, J. A. 1978. Gradient analysis and classification of the high elevation red oak community of the Southern Appalachians. M.S. thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. 483 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus rubra / Rhododendron calendulaceum - Vaccinium simulatum - Vaccinium erythrocarpum / Thelypteris noveboracensis Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Cumberland Highlands Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Evans, M. 1991. Kentucky ecological communities. Draft report to the Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission. 19 pp.
Related Concept Name: Deciduous Heath Phase
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: DeLapp, J. A. 1978. Gradient analysis and classification of the high elevation red oak community of the Southern Appalachians. M.S. thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. 483 pp.
Related Concept Name: High Elevation Red Oak Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: High Elevation Red Oak Forest (Herb Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: High elevation red oak/blueberry-flame azalea forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.
Related Concept Name: IA4g. High Elevation Northern Red Oak Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Mixed Fern Phase
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: DeLapp, J. A. 1978. Gradient analysis and classification of the high elevation red oak community of the Southern Appalachians. M.S. thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. 483 pp.
Related Concept Name: Northern Red Oak (55)
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: USFS [U.S. Forest Service]. 1988. Silvicultural examination and prescription field book. USDA Forest Service, Southern Region. Atlanta, GA. 35 pp.
Related Concept Name: Northern Red Oak Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Northern Red Oak, BR
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Pyne, M. 1994. Tennessee natural communities. Unpublished document. Tennessee Department of Conservation, Ecology Service Division, Nashville. 7 pp.
Related Concept Name: Northern Red Oak: 55
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: Oligotrophic Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Rawinski, T. J. 1992. A classification of Virginia's indigenous biotic communities: Vegetated terrestrial, palustrine, and estuarine community classes. Unpublished document. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report No. 92-21. Richmond, VA. 25 pp.
Related Concept Name: Red Oak - Chestnut Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Whittaker, R. H. 1956. Vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecological Monographs 26:1-80.
Related Concept Name: Submesic Oak Ridge Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.
Related Concept Name: Tall Herb Phase
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: DeLapp, J. A. 1978. Gradient analysis and classification of the high elevation red oak community of the Southern Appalachians. M.S. thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. 483 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.596 Central and Southern Appalachian Montane Oak Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (31Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This community is uncommon but not rare. It is secure within its range.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GA, KYpotentially occurs, NC, TN, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs on most of the major mountain ranges of the Southern Appalachians in North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and Virginia. It may possibly range into Kentucky's Cumberland Mountains and into West Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This forest is dominated by Quercus rubra with other species making up less than 25% of the canopy cover. Other canopy and subcanopy trees may include Acer pensylvanicum, Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Betula alleghaniensis, Betula lenta, Castanea dentata (root sprouts), Fagus grandifolia, Halesia tetraptera, Hamamelis virginiana, Ilex montana, Magnolia acuminata, and, on more exposed sites, Quercus prinus. At higher elevations, this community may contain Picea rubens. The shrub layer may be continuous to patchy but has at least 20% cover and more than 50% of the total shrub cover is deciduous, although evergreen shrubs may be present. Typical shrub dominants include Rhododendron calendulaceum, Vaccinium simulatum, Vaccinium erythrocarpum, Hamamelis virginiana, Ilex montana, Gaylussacia ursina, Rubus canadensis, Corylus cornuta, and Lyonia ligustrina. In Virginia examples, Vaccinium erythrocarpum often occurs as a very low, clonal shrub, only a few inches tall. Other shrubs occur with lower frequency and may include Kalmia latifolia, Rhododendron catawbiense, and Rhododendron maximum. Rubus allegheniensis occurs in disturbed openings and in seeps. The herbaceous stratum is diverse and is predominantly a mix of sedges, ferns and tall herbs. Herbaceous dominance varies within and among occurrences. Typical herbaceous species include Ageratina altissima var. roanensis, Athyrium filix-femina ssp. asplenioides, Clintonia umbellulata, Collinsonia canadensis, Conopholis americana, Dennstaedtia punctilobula, Dichanthelium latifolium, Dioscorea quaternata, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Houstonia purpurea, Laportea canadensis, Lysimachia quadrifolia, Medeola virginiana, Monarda fistulosa, Oclemena acuminata (= Aster acuminatus), Potentilla canadensis, Prenanthes roanensis, Smilax herbacea, Silene stellata, Solidago curtisii (= Solidago caesia var. curtisii), and Thelypteris noveboracensis. Many species in this community are endemic to the Southern Blue Ridge or have the bulk of their worldwide range in that region. Some of these endemics include Abies fraseri, Aesculus flava, Ageratina altissima var. roanensis, Carex roanensis, Clethra acuminata, Euphorbia purpurea, Leucothoe recurva, Prenanthes roanensis, Rhododendron catawbiense, Rhododendron vaseyi, Silene ovata, Solidago curtisii, and Vaccinium erythrocarpum.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Prunus virginiana G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Quercus rubra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Abies fraseri G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Acer rubrum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy  
 
 
Hamamelis virginiana G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy  
 
 
Ilex montana G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy  
 
 
Aesculus flava G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Clethra acuminata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Rhododendron prinophyllum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Rhododendron vaseyi G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Robinia viscosa var. hartwegii G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Vaccinium hirsutum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Leucothoe recurva G4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Rhododendron catawbiense G4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Rhododendron calendulaceum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Vaccinium simulatum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Pyrola americana G4 Dwarf-shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Rubus canadensis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Vaccinium erythrocarpum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Vaccinium pallidum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Ageratina altissima var. roanensis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Calystegia catesbeiana G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Chelone cuthbertii G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Coreopsis latifolia G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Delphinium exaltatum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Euphorbia purpurea G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Gentiana austromontana G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Helianthemum bicknellii G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Helianthemum propinquum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Helianthus glaucophyllus G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Hypericum mitchellianum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Prenanthes roanensis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Silene ovata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Solidago curtisii G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Stachys clingmanii G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Streptopus lanceolatus var. roseus G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Trillium simile G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Botrychium lanceolatum var. angustisegmentum G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Dennstaedtia punctilobula G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)  
 
 
Thelypteris noveboracensis G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)  
 
 
Calamagrostis porteri G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex pensylvanica G4 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Carex roanensis G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Clematis occidentalis G4 Liana Herb (field)      
 
 
Lonicera dioica G4 Liana Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Abies fraseri
  (Fraser Fir)
G2  
Ageratina altissima var. roanensis
  (Appalachian White Snakeroot)
G5T3T4  
Calystegia catesbeiana
  (Catesby's False Bindweed)
G3  
Carex roanensis
  (Roan Mountain Sedge)
G2G3  
Chelone cuthbertii
  (Cuthbert's Turtlehead)
G3  
Coreopsis latifolia
  (Broadleaf Tickseed)
G3  
Delphinium exaltatum
  (Tall Larkspur)
G3  
Euphorbia purpurea
  (Glade Spurge)
G3  
Gentiana austromontana
  (Appalachian Gentian)
G3  
Helianthus glaucophyllus
  (Whiteleaf Sunflower)
G3G4  
Hypericum mitchellianum
  (Blue Ridge St. John's-wort)
G3  
Prenanthes roanensis
  (Roan Mountain Rattlesnake-root)
G3  
Rhododendron vaseyi
  (Pink-shell Azalea)
G3  
Robinia viscosa var. hartwegii
  (Hartweg's Locust)
G3T2  
Silene ovata
  (Ovate Catchfly)
G3  
Stachys clingmanii
  (Clingman's Hedge-nettle)
G2  
Trillium simile
  (Jeweled Wakerobin)
G3  
Vaccinium hirsutum
  (Hairy Blueberry)
G3  

Vegetation Structure
Stratum Growth Form
Height of Stratum (m)
Cover
Class
%
Min
Cover %
Max
Cover %
Tree canopy Broad-leaved deciduous tree
 
 
 
 
Tree subcanopy Broad-leaved deciduous tree
 
 
 
 
Tall shrub/sapling Shrub
2 - 5 m
 
 
 
Short shrub/sapling Shrub
1 - 2 m
 
 
 
Herb (field) Flowering forb
 
 
 
 
Herb (field) Fern (Spore-bearing forb)
 
 
 
 
Herb (field) Graminoid
 
 
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This community occurs at elevations of 1070-1525 m (3500-5000 feet) on broad ridges and mid- to upper-slope positions. DeLapp (1978) found that this community occurs on most slope aspects but was most commonly found on southeast and south exposures. Of the 43 plot samples from the Appalachian Trail classification project, about half are on crests and interfluves; the remaining samples have variable slope exposures (Fleming and Patterson 2009a). This community occurs over well-drained soils underlain by Precambrian gneisses, schists and granites. These soils are classified as Typic, Umbric, or Lithic Dystrochrepts, and Typic Haplumbrepts (Golden 1974). Soils supporting this forest with a mainly deciduous shrub understory are slightly less acidic than Quercus rubra-dominated forests with evergreen shrub understories (DeLapp 1978).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: The canopy is probably rarely removed completely by natural disturbance however, small canopy gaps are caused by individual tree death. Occurrences of this community on exposed slopes and south- and west-facing ridges are subject to lightning-caused fires and damage by ice and wind. Damage by icestorms is probably the most common form of natural disturbance.

Quercus rubra reproduction and survival are optimal in canopy gaps with little regeneration under the forest canopy, hence these forests will eventually succeed to forests with mixed canopy composition of Quercus rubra, Betula alleghaniensis, Acer rubrum, and Fagus grandifolia. Many Quercus rubra-dominated stands of today were, prior to the chestnut blight in the 1930s, dominated or codominated by Castanea dentata with scattered Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum in the canopy (Golden 1974). The fungus Endothia parasitica eliminated Castanea dentata in the upper canopy, subsequently releasing the subcanopy Quercus rubra, which eventually resulted in a nearly pure upper canopy of large Quercus rubra.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): K.D. Patterson
Element Description Edition Date: 24Feb2010
Element Description Author(s): K.D. Patterson
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 31Dec1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): Southeastern Ecology Group

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.

  • Braun, E. L. 1940. An ecological transect of Black Mountain, Kentucky. Ecological Monographs 10:194-241.

  • Braun, E. L. 1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North America. Hafner Press, New York. 596 pp.

  • CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • Coker, W. C., and H. R. Totten. 1945. Trees of the southeastern United States. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

  • DeLapp, J. A. 1978. Gradient analysis and classification of the high elevation red oak community of the Southern Appalachians. M.S. thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. 483 pp.

  • Evans, M. 1991. Kentucky ecological communities. Draft report to the Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission. 19 pp.

  • Evans, M., B. Yahn, and M. Hines. Kentucky ecological communities. 2009. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, KY.

  • Evans, Marc. Personal communication. Ecologist. Kentucky Natural Heritage Program, Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. Eighth edition. A handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. American Book Co., New York.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009b. Classification of selected Virginia montane wetland groups. In-house analysis, December 2009. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Golden, M. S. 1974. Forest vegetation and site relationships in the central portion of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 275 pp.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: J. T. Kartesz and C. A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, NC.

  • McDougal, K. M., and C. R. Parks. 1984. Elevational variation in foliar flavonoids of Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae). American Journal of Botany 71:301-308.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Pyne, M. 1994. Tennessee natural communities. Unpublished document. Tennessee Department of Conservation, Ecology Service Division, Nashville. 7 pp.

  • Rawinski, T. J. 1992. A classification of Virginia's indigenous biotic communities: Vegetated terrestrial, palustrine, and estuarine community classes. Unpublished document. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report No. 92-21. Richmond, VA. 25 pp.

  • Rohrer, J. R. 1983. Vegetation pattern and rock type in the flora of the Hanging Rock Area, North Carolina. Castanea 48:189-205.

  • Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Stephenson, S. L., and H. S. Adams. 1989. The high-elevation red oak (Quercus rubra) community type in western Virginia. Castanea 54:217-229.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • USFS [U.S. Forest Service]. 1988. Silvicultural examination and prescription field book. USDA Forest Service, Southern Region. Atlanta, GA. 35 pp.

  • Weakley, A. S. 1997. Flora of the Carolinas and Virginia. Unpublished May draft. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC.

  • Whigham, D. F. 1969. Vegetation patterns on the north slopes of Bluff Mountain, Ashe County, North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 85:1-15.

  • Whittaker, R. H. 1956. Vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecological Monographs 26:1-80.


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