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Quercus pagoda - Quercus phellos - Quercus lyrata - Quercus michauxii / Chasmanthium latifolium Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Cherrybark Oak - Willow Oak - Overcup Oak - Swamp Chestnut Oak / Indian Woodoats Swamp Forest
Common Name: Piedmont Triassic Basin Oak Bottomland Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007356
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association covers Piedmont bottomland forests which occur in broad, flat floodplains of Triassic basins of North Carolina and possibly South Carolina. The diverse canopy is characteristic, composed of species which often are normally sorted out along a hydrologic gradient in the larger floodplains of the Coastal Plain. The canopy is dominated by Quercus pagoda, Quercus phellos, Quercus michauxii, Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Celtis laevigata, and Ulmus americana, with lesser amounts of Quercus shumardii, Quercus palustris, Acer barbatum, Carya ovalis, Carya cordiformis, and Pinus taeda. In addition, Quercus lyrata is present in abandoned sloughs and oxbows, which are inclusions in this association. Subcanopy trees are Ilex decidua, Carpinus caroliniana, Aesculus sylvatica, Asimina triloba, and Acer barbatum. Shrubs and woody vines are Lindera benzoin, Bignonia capreolata, Toxicodendron radicans, Smilax rotundifolia, and others. The herb stratum includes Chasmanthium latifolium, Carex spp., Arisaema triphyllum, Cardamine concatenata, Claytonia virginica, Geranium maculatum, Erythronium americanum, Lysimachia ciliata, and others.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: As defined, this Piedmont type would be largely restricted to the Triassic Basin (Southern Triassic Basins Subsection 231Ao), as Quercus pagoda is rarely found outside of the Coastal Plain. In contrast to the floodplains of the adjacent Slate Belts (231Ae, 231Af), those in the Triassic basins are broader and flatter, showing some Coastal Plain influence as demonstrated by the presence of Quercus pagoda. The name of this association may need revision; the distinctions (floristic and nomenclatural) between this type and more common Coastal Plain bottomland associations need further verification. It occurs in the Piedmont instead of the Coastal Plain. In Virginia, related vegetation is treated as Quercus phellos - Quercus (palustris, lyrata) / Ilex decidua / Carex typhina Floodplain Forest (CEGL006498).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Floodplain Forest
Group Oak - Sweetgum Floodplain Forest
Alliance Interior Swamp Chestnut Oak Floodplain Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006498 Quercus phellos - Quercus (palustris, lyrata) / Ilex decidua / Carex typhina Floodplain Forest
CEGL007006 Liquidambar styraciflua - Quercus (phellos, nigra, alba) / Carpinus caroliniana Floodplain Forest
CEGL007354 Quercus pagoda - Quercus nigra / Halesia diptera / Chasmanthium sessiliflorum - Dicliptera brachiata Floodplain Forest
CEGL008487 Quercus shumardii - Quercus michauxii - Quercus nigra / Acer barbatum - Tilia americana var. heterophylla Swamp Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Piedmont Bottomland Forest (Typic Low Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Piedmont/Mountain Bottomland Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.324 Southern Piedmont Large Floodplain Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2? (22Aug1997)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This association is restricted in range, being largely restricted to Triassic basins of the Piedmont (Southern Triassic Basins Subsection 231Ao). Some examples are afforded some protection at Jordan Lake Reservoir lands, North Carolina. Threats include fragmentation from powerline corridors and sewer line easements, siltation from land disturbance and development upstream, and anthropogenic flooding from wildlife subimpoundments and other hydrologic enhancements. The exotic species Lonicera japonica, Ligustrum sinense, and Microstegium vimineum may invade stands of this association.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NC, SCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This bottomland forest occurs in broad, flat floodplains of Triassic basins of North Carolina and possibly South Carolina.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy of stands of this association is typically dominated by Quercus pagoda, Quercus phellos, Quercus michauxii, Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Celtis laevigata, and Ulmus americana, with lesser amounts of Quercus shumardii, Quercus palustris, Acer barbatum, Carya ovalis, Carya cordiformis, and Pinus taeda. In addition, Quercus lyrata is present in abandoned sloughs and oxbows, which are inclusions in this association. Subcanopy trees are Ilex decidua, Carpinus caroliniana, Aesculus sylvatica, Asimina triloba, and Acer barbatum. Shrubs and woody vines are Lindera benzoin, Bignonia capreolata, Toxicodendron radicans, Smilax rotundifolia, and others. The herb stratum includes Chasmanthium latifolium, Carex spp., (which are abundant and diverse, including Carex debilis, Carex intumescens, Carex lupulina, Carex squarrosa, Carex stipata, Carex tribuloides, Carex typhina, etc.) Arisaema triphyllum, Cardamine concatenata, Claytonia virginica, Geranium maculatum, Erythronium americanum, Lysimachia ciliata, Zephyranthes atamasca, and others. Ferns include Onoclea sensibilis, Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, and Woodwardia areolata. The exotic species Lonicera japonica, Ligustrum sinense, and Microstegium vimineum may invade stands of this association.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus lyrata G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus michauxii G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus pagoda G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus phellos G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Ligustrum sinense G2 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Chasmanthium latifolium G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Microstegium vimineum G2 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Lonicera japonica G2 Liana Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Stands of this bottomland association occur in broad, flat floodplains of Triassic basins in the Piedmont of North Carolina. In contrast to the floodplains of the adjacent Slate Belts (231Ae, 231Af), those in the Triassic basins are broader and flatter, showing some Coastal Plain influence as demonstrated by the presence of Quercus pagoda.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley after LeGrand (1999)
Element Description Edition Date: 01Jan2013
Element Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 24May2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • LeGrand, H. E., Jr. 1999. B. Everett Jordan Lake Project: Inventory for rare, threatened, and endangered species and natural community inventory. Unpublished report for U. S. Army Corps of Engineers - Wilmington District, Natural Resource Management Section. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Division of Parks and Recreation, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Raleigh, NC. 408 pp.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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