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Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Hamamelis virginiana Forest
Translated Name: Chestnut Oak - Northern Red Oak / American Witch-hazel Forest
Common Name: Central Appalachian Dry-Mesic Chestnut Oak - Northern Red Oak Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006057
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This closed-canopy, dry-mesic oak forest of the central Appalachian Mountains is a montane forest of somewhat protected rocky slopes. The canopy is codominated by Quercus prinus and Quercus rubra. Associated canopy species include Liriodendron tulipifera, Acer rubrum, Carya glabra, Carya ovalis, Carya alba, Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Fagus grandifolia, and Betula lenta. The tall-shrub layer is most often characterized by Hamamelis virginiana and Acer pensylvanicum. The lower shrub layer is patchy and contains a mixture of scrambling vines, ericads, and non-ericaceous species. The herbaceous layer is usually sparse but may include Dryopteris marginalis, Dioscorea quaternata, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Ageratina altissima, Polygonatum biflorum, Solidago caesia, Festuca subverticillata, Thelypteris noveboracensis, Sanicula trifoliata, Prenanthes altissima, Polystichum acrostichoides, Desmodium nudiflorum, Galium latifolium, Houstonia purpurea, and Maianthemum racemosum. This association is more or less intermediate in site conditions and composition between oak / heath forests of exposed, xeric, infertile sites and richer cove or montane oak-hickory forests of sheltered, fertile sites.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Appalachian Oak / Chestnut Forest
Alliance Mesic Chestnut Oak - Northern Red Oak Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004817 Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus - Magnolia (acuminata, fraseri) / Acer pensylvanicum Forest
CEGL006282 Quercus prinus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Vaccinium (angustifolium, pallidum) Forest
CEGL006299 Quercus prinus - (Quercus coccinea, Quercus rubra) / Kalmia latifolia / Vaccinium pallidum Forest
CEGL006565 Betula lenta - Quercus prinus / Parthenocissus quinquefolia Woodland
CEGL007267 Quercus prinus - (Quercus rubra) - Carya spp. / Oxydendrum arboreum - Cornus florida Forest
CEGL008514 Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus - Carya ovalis / (Cercis canadensis) / Solidago caesia Forest
CEGL008523 Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Vaccinium pallidum - (Rhododendron periclymenoides) Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Delaware Central Appalachian Dry-Mesic Chestnut Oak-Northern Red Oak Forest Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maryland Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra - Carya (glabra, alba) / Gaylussacia baccata Forest Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011
New Jersey Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra - Carya (glabra, alba) / Gaylussacia baccata Forest Equivalent Certain Breden et al. 2001
Pennsylvania Dry Oak - Heath Forest Broader   Fike 1999


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana - Quercus rubra / Acer pensylvanicum - Hamamelis virginiana Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 2000. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Peter's Mountain area, James River Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 195 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana - Quercus rubra / Cornus florida / Viburnum acerifolium Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Young, J., G. Fleming, P. Townsend, and J. Foster. 2007a. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients. Final Report, volume 1.1. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 103 pp. plus appendices and GIS products.
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana - Quercus rubra / Hamamelis virginiana Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana - Quercus rubra / Vitis aestivalis var. bicolor - Parthenocissus quinquefolia / Aralia nudicaulis - Dryopteris marginalis Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana - Robinia pseudoacacia / Ribes rotundifolium Association
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Rawinski, T. J., G. P. Fleming, and F. V. Judge. 1994. Forest vegetation of the Ramsey's Draft and Little Laurel Run Research Natural Areas, Virginia: Baseline ecological monitoring and classification. Natural Heritage Technical Report 94-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 45 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra - Carya (glabra, alba) / Gaylussacia baccata Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Hamamelis virginiana Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P. 2007. Ecological communities of the Potomac Gorge in Virginia: Composition, floristics, and environmental dynamics. Natural Heritage Technical Report 07-12. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 341 pp. plus appendices.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus rubra - Magnolia acuminata Association
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1996. Ecological land units of the Laurel Fork Area, Highland County, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-08. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 114 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus rubra - Quercus montana / Parthenocissus quinquefolia - Vitis aestivalis var. bicolor / Dryopteris marginalis - Aralia nudicaulis Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Quercus rubra - Quercus montana / Parthenocissus quinquefolia / Aralia nudicaulis - Dryopteris marginalis Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P. 2002a. Ecological communities of the Bull Run Mountains, Virginia: Baseline vegetation and floristic data for conservation planning and natural area stewardship. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-12. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 274 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus - Liriodendron tulipifera / Parthenocissus quinquefolia - Dryopteris marginalis Association
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Chestnut Oak - Black Birch community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1977. Vegetation of Morristown National Historical Park: Ecological analysis and management alternatives. Final Report. USDI National Park Service Contract No. 1600-7-0004. 166 pp.
Related Concept Name: Chestnut Oak Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Chestnut Oak: 44
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: Chestnut oak-red oak/ericad forest: (matrix) N slopes
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.
Related Concept Name: Mixed oak / hardwoods mesic forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Windisch, A. G. 1993. Natural community inventory of Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. Unpublished report prepared for Picatinny Arsenal, U.S. Department of Defense. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Heritage Task Force, Trenton, NJ.
Related Concept Name: Montane Mixed Oak / Oak - Hickory Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Red Oak - Chestnut Oak Community Type
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Stephenson, S. L., and H. S. Adams. 1991. Upland oak forests of the Ridge and Valley Province in southwestern Virginia. Virginia Journal of Science 42:371-380.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.592 Northeastern Interior Dry-Mesic Oak Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G5 (01Oct2001)
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This is a widespread oak forest of the central Appalachian Mountains found on intermediate rocky slopes. It is secure within its range.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DE, MD, NJ, PA, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association occurs throughout the central Appalachian region of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and possibly farther north. In Virginia, it is a large-patch community type in both the Northern Blue Ridge and Ridge and Valley provinces. Small-patch outliers of this type occur in rocky, sheltered ravines of the northern Virginia and Maryland Piedmont.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Northern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212G Occurrence Status: Possible
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Possible
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Possible
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation is usually a closed-canopy forest codominated by Quercus prinus and Quercus rubra in variable proportions. Over the full geographic range, overstory associates are reported to include Liriodendron tulipifera, Fraxinus americana, Tilia americana, Betula lenta, Acer rubrum, Magnolia acuminata, Nyssa sylvatica, Robinia pseudoacacia, Carya glabra, Carya ovalis, and Carya alba. Less frequent, and more local, overstory and understory trees include Acer saccharum, Amelanchier arborea, Asimina triloba, Fagus grandifolia, Ostrya virginiana, and Tsuga canadensis. A tall-shrub layer is occasionally absent but usually characterized by Hamamelis virginiana and, less frequently, by Cornus florida and Acer pensylvanicum, the latter more common at higher elevations. The lower shrub layer contains scrambling or climbing vines of Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Vitis aestivalis, and Toxicodendron radicans, along with Viburnum acerifolium, Hydrangea arborescens, Vaccinium pallidum, and Vaccinium stamineum. In general, ericaceous species are patchy to sparse in this community. The herbaceous layer is usually sparse but may include Dryopteris marginalis, Dioscorea quaternata, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Ageratina altissima, Polygonatum biflorum, Solidago caesia, Festuca subverticillata, Thelypteris noveboracensis, Sanicula trifoliata, Prenanthes altissima, Polystichum acrostichoides, Desmodium nudiflorum, Galium latifolium, Houstonia purpurea, and Maianthemum racemosum. Although not one of the more constant herbs, Aralia nudicaulis may occasionally dominate the herb layer of this community in large, clonal patches. This association is more-or-less intermediate in site conditions and composition between oak/heath forests of exposed, xeric, infertile sites and richer cove or montane oak-hickory forests of sheltered, fertile sites.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Carya glabra G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus prinus G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus rubra G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Tsuga caroliniana G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Acer pensylvanicum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Acer rubrum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Cornus florida G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Sassafras albidum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Parthenocissus quinquefolia G5 Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Vitis aestivalis G5 Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Hamamelis virginiana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Viburnum acerifolium G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Panax quinquefolius G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Scutellaria saxatilis G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Panax quinquefolius
  (American Ginseng)
G3G4  
Scutellaria saxatilis
  (Rock Skullcap)
G3  
Tsuga caroliniana
  (Carolina Hemlock)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: Sites occupied by this dry-mesic oak forest are mostly protected rocky mountain slopes. In the Central Appalachians of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland, the type occurs at low and middle elevations, from <300 m (1000 feet) to about 1100 m (3600 feet), reaching optimal development at 610-915 m (2000-3000 feet). Habitats are underlain by a variety of bedrock types, including metabasalt (greenstone), pyroxene-rich granitic rocks, Antietam and Tuscarora quartzites, metasiltstone and phyllite, shale, and sedimentary material (interbedded sandstone, siltstone, and shale). Among plot-sampled Mid-Atlantic stands, lower to middle slope topographic positions predominate, along with steep (mean = 27), usually concave slopes, and relatively high surface cover of outcrops, boulders, and stones. Slope aspect is variable, but the majority of aspects range from north to southeast. Soil samples collected from plots were strongly to very strongly acidic (mean pH = 4.8) but had moderately high levels of calcium (mean = 1019 ppm), reflecting the frequent occurrence of this community on moderately base-rich substrates.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Wind and ice damage to tree crowns, damage to Cornus florida from dogwood anthracnose (Discula destructiva), and a few small fire scars were disturbances noted in plots. Although Castanea dentata logs and wood were not abundant in plots, frequent sprouts indicate that Castanea dentata was at least an associate tree in this type prior to the arrival of chestnut blight. The northwest slopes of Peters Mountain in Alleghany County, Virginia, contains old-growth examples of the type with large, widely spaced canopy trees in the 43- to 72-cm (17-28 inches) dbh range. Representative old-age trees include a 59-cm (23 inches) dbh Quercus prinus >220 years old; a 63-cm (25 inches) dbh Quercus prinus about179 years old; a 67-cm (26 inches) dbh Quercus prinus 265 years old; and a 71-cm (28 inches) dbh Quercus rubra >247 years old (Fleming and Moorhead 2000).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G. Fleming and P. Coulling (2001)
Element Description Edition Date: 02Oct2006
Element Description Author(s): G. Fleming, P. Coulling, S.L. Neid and. G. Fleming
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Oct2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1977. Vegetation of Morristown National Historical Park: Ecological analysis and management alternatives. Final Report. USDI National Park Service Contract No. 1600-7-0004. 166 pp.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002a. Ecological communities of the Bull Run Mountains, Virginia: Baseline vegetation and floristic data for conservation planning and natural area stewardship. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-12. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 274 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2007. Ecological communities of the Potomac Gorge in Virginia: Composition, floristics, and environmental dynamics. Natural Heritage Technical Report 07-12. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 341 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009b. Classification of selected Virginia montane wetland groups. In-house analysis, December 2009. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1996. Ecological land units of the Laurel Fork Area, Highland County, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-08. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 114 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 2000. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Peter's Mountain area, James River Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 195 pp. plus appendices.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Lea, C. 2003. Vegetation types in the National Capital Region Parks. Draft for review by NatureServe, Virginia Natural Heritage, West Virginia Natural Heritage, Maryland Natural Heritage, and National Park Service. March 2003. 140 pp.

  • Lea, C. 2004. Draft vegetation types in National Capital Region Parks. Edited by S.C. Gawler and J. Teague. Working draft for review by NatureServe, Virginia Natural Heritage, West Virginia Natural Heritage, Maryland Natural Heritage, and National Park Service. July 2004. 157 pp.

  • Rawinski, T. J., G. P. Fleming, and F. V. Judge. 1994. Forest vegetation of the Ramsey's Draft and Little Laurel Run Research Natural Areas, Virginia: Baseline ecological monitoring and classification. Natural Heritage Technical Report 94-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 45 pp. plus appendices.

  • Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.

  • Sneddon, L., R. E. Zaremba, E. Largay, G. Podniesinski, S. Perles, and J. Thompson. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping of Morristown National Historical Park, New Jersey. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/116. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 162 pp. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/morr/morrrpt.pdf]

  • Stephenson, S. L., and H. S. Adams. 1991. Upland oak forests of the Ridge and Valley Province in southwestern Virginia. Virginia Journal of Science 42:371-380.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.

  • Vanderhorst, J. 2000b. Plant communities of Harper's Ferry National Historical Park: Analysis, characterization, and mapping. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins, WV. 37 pp.

  • Windisch, A. G. 1993. Natural community inventory of Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. Unpublished report prepared for Picatinny Arsenal, U.S. Department of Defense. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Heritage Task Force, Trenton, NJ.

  • Young, J., G. Fleming, P. Townsend, and J. Foster. 2006. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients. Final Report (v.1.1). Research technical report prepared for USDI, National Park Service. USGS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program. 92 pp. plus appendices.

  • Young, J., G. Fleming, P. Townsend, and J. Foster. 2007a. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients. Final Report, volume 1.1. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 103 pp. plus appendices and GIS products.

  • Young, J., G. Fleming, W. Cass, and C. Lea. 2009. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients, Version 2.0. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2009/142. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 389 pp.


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Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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