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Schoenoplectus americanus Western Marsh
Translated Name: Chairmaker's Bulrush Western Marsh
Unique Identifier: CEGL001841
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This wetland herbaceous association ranges from California to Washington and east to Colorado. This description is based on information from Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve in Colorado. Additional global information will be added as it becomes available. This association is found within basin floor sabkhas, swales, or dunefields at elevations ranging from 2300 to 2340 m. This palustrine system can be seasonally flooded, temporarily flooded, or saturated. Soils are very poorly drained clays or very poorly to poorly drained loamy sands. Ground cover includes litter and duff (30-35%) and bare soil (10-40%). Herbaceous vegetation cover ranges from 55-95%, which is largely composed of Schoenoplectus americanus with 20-70% cover. Additional species that occur in lesser amounts include Cleome multicaulis, Distichlis spicata, and Juncus balticus.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nb - Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Arid West Interior Freshwater Marsh
Group Arid West Interior Freshwater Marsh
Alliance Western Emergent Bulrush Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL001587 Schoenoplectus pungens Marsh



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Idaho Scirpus americanus Community Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Oregon Scirpus americanus (Freshwater Association) Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Schoenoplectus americanus Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Sproul, F., T. Keeler-Wolf, P. Gordon-Reedy, J. Dunn, A. Klein, and K. Harper. 2011. Vegetation classification manual for western San Diego County. AECOM, California Department of Fish and Game, San Diego Area Governments.
Related Concept Name: Schoenoplectus americanus
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Keeler-Wolf, T. 2007. Mojave Desert scrub vegetation. Pages 609-656 in: M. G. Barbour, T. Keeler-Wolf, and A. A. Schoenherr, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California. Third edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Related Concept Name: Schoenoplectus americanus Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Buck-Diaz, J., S. Batiuk, and J. M. Evens. 2012. Vegetation alliances and associations of the Great Valley ecoregion, California. California Native Society, Sacramento, CA. [http://cnps.org/cnps/vegetation/pdf/great_valley_eco-vegclass2012.pdf]
Related Concept Name: Schoenoplectus americanus Western Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Evens, J. M., K. Sikes, D. Hastings, and J. Ratchford. 2014. Vegetation alliance descriptions for Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Death Valley National Park and Mojave National Preserve. Unpublished report submitted to USDI National Park Service, Mojave Desert Network Inventory and Monitoring Program. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, CA. [http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/units/MOJN/rpts_pubs/rpts_pubs_main.cfm]
Related Concept Name: Scirpus americanus
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.
Related Concept Name: Scirpus americanus Dominance Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Evans, S. 1989a. Riparian survey of Washington's Columbia Basin. Unpublished report prepared for The Nature Conservancy Washington Natural Heritage Program, Olympia, Washington.
Related Concept Name: Three-square Bulrush Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation (Schoenoplectus americanus)
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Christy, J. A., J. S. Kagan, and A. M. Wiedemann. 1998. Plant associations of the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area - Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-09-98. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 196 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES300.729 North American Arid West Emergent Marsh
CES304.058 Northern Columbia Plateau Basalt Pothole Pond
CES304.059 Inter-Mountain Basins Interdunal Swale Wetland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3Q (09Jul1999)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Schoenoplectus americanus Western Marsh (CEGL001841) is rare due to narrow habitat requirements and habitat loss and degradation. Known stands are restricted to hot springs and alkaline basins. Few examples are known in Oregon and Idaho, but its distribution in California is unclear. It is suspected that stands may be present in Montana. Stands occurring near hot springs are threatened by recreational use and some stands may have been extirpated by development of springs. Livestock impact stands by creating trails, accelerating hummocking, and creating areas where weedy species such as Argentina anserina or Plantago major may become established. Draining of wetlands for agricultural use or expansion of open water habitat for waterfowl may also eliminate stands of this association. Schoenoplectus americanus is a weakly defined association with limited supporting data. The association is listed as occurring in Idaho, California, Oregon, and Washington. The plant association as treated here occurs in inland alkaline basins and at hot springs. Hansen et al. (1995) recognized a Scirpus pungens association in Montana that included all combinations of Schoenoplectus pungens and Schoenoplectus americanus. Stand tables indicate that four Montana stands are dominated by Schoenoplectus americanus. Regional analysis is needed to further define the inland Schoenoplectus americanus association. Two additional Schoenoplectus americanus associations occurring in coastal salt marshes and tidal freshwater systems may need to be recognized in California, Oregon, and Washington.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AZ, CA, CO, ID, MTpotentially occurs, OR, WA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: The association is a minor type in the Great Basin and southern Rocky Mountains. It ranges from California north to Washington and east to Colorado.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Tropical/Subtropical Steppe Division
Province Name: Colorado Plateau Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 313 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Grand Canyon Lands Section
Section Code: 313A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Division
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 342 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northwestern Basin and Range Section
Section Code: 342B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Owyhee Uplands Section
Section Code: 342C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: High Lava Plains Section
Section Code: 342H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Marine Regime Mountains
Province Name: Cascade Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Eastern Cascades Section
Section Code: M242C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Parks and Ranges Section
Section Code: M331F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Challis Volcanics Section
Section Code: M332F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Mountains Section
Section Code: M332G Occurrence Status: Possible


Vegetation


Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Cleome multicaulis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Schoenoplectus americanus G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Cleome multicaulis
  (Many-stemmed Spider-flower)
G2G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M. Jankovsky-Jones
Element Description Edition Date: 07May2010
Element Description Author(s): K.E. Sabo
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Nov1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Jankovsky-Jones

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • Buck-Diaz, J., S. Batiuk, and J. M. Evens. 2012. Vegetation alliances and associations of the Great Valley ecoregion, California. California Native Society, Sacramento, CA. [http://cnps.org/cnps/vegetation/pdf/great_valley_eco-vegclass2012.pdf]

  • Christy, J. A., J. S. Kagan, and A. M. Wiedemann. 1998. Plant associations of the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area - Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-09-98. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 196 pp.

  • Driscoll, R. S., D. L. Merkel, D. L. Radloff, D. E. Snyder, and J. S. Hagihara. 1984. An ecological land classification framework for the United States. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1439. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 56 pp.

  • Evans, S. 1989a. Riparian survey of Washington's Columbia Basin. Unpublished report prepared for The Nature Conservancy Washington Natural Heritage Program, Olympia, Washington.

  • Evens, J. M., K. Sikes, D. Hastings, and J. Ratchford. 2014. Vegetation alliance descriptions for Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Death Valley National Park and Mojave National Preserve. Unpublished report submitted to USDI National Park Service, Mojave Desert Network Inventory and Monitoring Program. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, CA. [http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/units/MOJN/rpts_pubs/rpts_pubs_main.cfm]

  • Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2000-2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland. 63 pp.

  • Keeler-Wolf, T. 2007. Mojave Desert scrub vegetation. Pages 609-656 in: M. G. Barbour, T. Keeler-Wolf, and A. A. Schoenherr, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California. Third edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  • Reid, M. S., and M. E. Hall. 2010. Vegetation classification of Grand Canyon National Park. Draft report submitted to National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Salas, D. E., J. Stevens, K. Schulz, M. Artmann, B. Friesen, S. Blauer, E. W. Schweiger, and A. Valdez. 2010b. Vegetation classification and mapping project report: Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve. Natural Resource Report NPS/ROMN/NRR--2010/179. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Sproul, F., T. Keeler-Wolf, P. Gordon-Reedy, J. Dunn, A. Klein, and K. Harper. 2011. Vegetation classification manual for western San Diego County. AECOM, California Department of Fish and Game, San Diego Area Governments.

  • Tuhy, J. S. 1981. Stream bottom community classification for the Sawtooth Valley, Idaho. Unpublished thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow. 230 pp.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


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