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Salix boothii / Mesic Forbs Wet Shrubland
Translated Name: Booth's Willow / Mesic Forbs Wet Shrubland
Unique Identifier: CEGL001180
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association is known from southern and central Idaho, western Montana, western Colorado, Utah, California, and Wyoming. Stands are found over a broad range of elevations from 1370-3050 m (4500-10,000 feet), in riparian areas on stream benches, meadows, and seeps located in narrow or broad valley bottoms. Soils are often organic. The vegetation has a 1- to 2-m tall-shrub layer that often forms extensive thickets, or willow carrs, on broad montane floodplains. The overstory of this shrubland association is dominated by Salix boothii. Salix geyeriana or Salix drummondiana may codominate. Salix wolfii, Lonicera involucrata, and/or Ribes inerme commonly form a low-shrub layer, generally tucked under the bases of the taller willows. The dense herbaceous understory is dominated by forbs. No one species in dominant or consistently present in all stands; however, when taken together, the total forb cover is greater than the total graminoid cover. Forb species typically include Heracleum maximum, Mertensia spp., Maianthemum stellatum, Symphyotrichum foliaceum, Aconitum columbianum, Cirsium arvense, Fragaria virginiana, Geranium viscosissimum, Hydrophyllum fendleri, Urtica dioica, and Rudbeckia occidentalis. Although highly variable, graminoid cover is typically less than 20%. Graminoid species include Poa pratensis, Carex microptera, Calamagrostis canadensis, Agrostis gigantea, and Phleum pratense.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nb - Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Western North American Montane Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Western Montane-Subalpine Riparian & Seep Shrubland
Alliance Western Montane Tall Willow Wet Shrubland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL001181 Salix boothii / Mesic Graminoids Wet Shrubland
CEGL001183 Salix boothii / Poa palustris Wet Shrubland
CEGL001187 Salix boothii / Maianthemum stellatum Wet Shrubland
CEGL002666 Salix geyeriana / Mesic Forbs Wet Shrubland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Idaho Salix boothii / Mesic Forbs Shrubland Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Oregon Salix boothii Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004
Wyoming Salix boothii / Mesic Forbs Shrubland Equivalent Certain WNDD unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Salix boothii / Mesic Forb Community Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.
Related Concept Name: Salix boothii / Mesic Forb Plant Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, and M. Damm. 1997b. Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera / Symphoricarpos occidentalis Community Characterization Abstract-Subnational Basic, draft March 12, 1997. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.
Related Concept Name: Salix boothii / Mesic Forb Shrubland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.
Related Concept Name: Salix boothii/Mesic Forb
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES306.832 Rocky Mountain Subalpine-Montane Riparian Shrubland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (19Sep2000)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This association occurs in Idaho, California, and is a widespread type across Utah and Colorado where most of the known occurrences are located. In many parts of its range this association is threatened by livestock overgrazing, stream flow alterations, and heavy recreational use.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WY
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is known from Colorado, Utah, Idaho, California, and possibly Wyoming.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Division
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 342 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northwestern Basin and Range Section
Section Code: 342B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bear Lake Section
Section Code: 342E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Overthrust Mountains Section
Section Code: M331D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: North-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Beaverhead Mountains Section
Section Code: M332E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Northern Rocky Mountain Forest - Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M333 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Rockies Section
Section Code: M333C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Regime Mountains
Province Name: Nevada-Utah Mountains Semi-Desert - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M341 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Great Basin Mountains Section
Section Code: M341A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation has a 1- to 2-m tall-shrub layer that often forms extensive thickets, or willow carrs, on broad montane floodplains. The overstory of this shrubland association is dominated by Salix boothii. Salix geyeriana or Salix drummondiana may codominate. Salix wolfii, Lonicera involucrata, and/or Ribes inerme commonly form a low-shrub layer. The dense herbaceous understory is dominated by forbs. No one species in dominant or consistently present in all stands; however, when taken together, the total forb cover is greater than the total graminoid cover. Forb species typically include Heracleum maximum (= Heracleum lanatum), Mertensia spp., Maianthemum stellatum (= Smilacina stellata), Symphyotrichum foliaceum, Aconitum columbianum, Cirsium arvense, Fragaria virginiana, Geranium viscosissimum, Hydrophyllum fendleri, Urtica dioica, and Rudbeckia occidentalis. Although highly variable, graminoid cover is typically less than 20%. Graminoid species include Poa pratensis, Carex microptera, Calamagrostis canadensis, Agrostis gigantea, and Phleum pratense.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Salix boothii G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Cirsium arvense G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Heracleum maximum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Maianthemum stellatum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Urtica dioica G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Agrostis gigantea G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Phleum pratense G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Stands are found over a broad range of elevations from 1370-3050 m (4500-10,000 feet), and in riparian areas on stream benches, meadows, and seeps located in narrow or broad valley bottoms. Soils are often organic.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Western Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 09Aug2005
Element Description Author(s): J. Thompson, J. Stevens, G. Kittel
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Dec1999
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): J. Thompson, J. Stevens

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • CNHP [Colorado Natural Heritage Program]. 2006-2017. Tracked natural plant communities. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. [https://cnhp.colostate.edu/ourdata/trackinglist/plant_communities/]

  • Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Cogan, D., J. E. Taylor, and K. Schulz. 2012. Vegetation inventory project: Great Basin National Park. Natural Resource Report NPS/MOJN/NRR--2012/568. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 373 pp.

  • Cogan, D., K. Varga, and G. Kittel. 2005. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Grand Teton National Park and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway. Final Project Report 2002-2005 Vegetation Mapping Project. Technical Memorandum 8260-06-02. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO. 87 pp. plus Appendixes A-F.

  • Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.

  • Hansen, P. L., S. W. Chadde, and R. D. Pfister. 1988b. Riparian dominance types of Montana. University of Montana Miscellaneous Publication 49. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, Missoula. 411 pp.

  • Hop, K., M. Reid, J. Dieck, S. Lubinski, and S. Cooper. 2007. U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program: Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, WI. 131 pp. plus Appendices A-L.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Jones, G., and S. Ogle. 2000. Characterization abstracts for vegetation types on the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, and Shoshone national forests. Prepared for USDA Forest Service, Region 2 by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Kettler, S., and A. McMullen. 1996. Routt National Forest riparian vegetation classification. Report prepared for Routt National Forest by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

  • Kittel, G. M., and N. D. Lederer. 1993. A preliminary classification of the riparian vegetation of the Yampa and San Miguel/Dolores river basins. Unpublished report prepared for Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency by The Nature Conservancy, Colorado Field Office, Boulder.

  • Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.

  • Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, and M. Damm. 1997b. Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera / Symphoricarpos occidentalis Community Characterization Abstract-Subnational Basic, draft March 12, 1997. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Kittel, G., R. Rondeau, N. Lederer, and D. Randolph. 1994. A classification of the riparian vegetation of the White and Colorado River basins, Colorado. Final report submitted to Colorado Department of Natural Resources and the Environmental Protection Agency. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Boulder. 166 pp.

  • Kittel, G., R. Rondeau, and S. Kettler. 1995. A classification of the riparian vegetation of the Gunnison River Basin, Colorado. Submitted to Colorado Department of Natural Resources and the Environmental Protection Agency. Prepared by Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins. 114 pp.

  • Norton, B. E., J. Tuhy, and S. Jensen. 1981. Riparian community classification for the Grey's River, Wyoming. Unpublished final report prepared by Department of Range Science, Utah State University, Logan for USDA Forest Service, Region 4, Ogden, UT. 188 pp.

  • Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1988b. Riparian community type classification of Utah. Publication R4-ECOL-88-01. USDA Forest Service, Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

  • Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

  • Peterson, E. B. 2008. International Vegetation Classification alliances and associations occurring in Nevada with proposed additions. Nevada Natural Heritage Program, Carson City, NV. 348 pp.

  • Reid, M. S., S. V. Cooper, and G. Kittel. 2004. Vegetation classification of Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. Final report for USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, International Peace Park Mapping Project. NatureServe, Arlington VA.

  • Sawyer, J. O., and T. Keeler-Wolf. 1995. A manual of California vegetation. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 471 pp.

  • Schulz, K. A., and M. E. Hall. 2011. Vegetation inventory project: Great Basin National Park. Unpublished report submitted to USDI National Park Service, Mojave Desert Inventory and Monitoring Network. NatureServe, Western Regional Office, Boulder, CO. 30 pp. plus Appendices A-H.

  • WNDD [Wyoming Natural Diversity Database]. No date. Unpublished data on file. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

  • Weixelman, D. A., D. C. Zamudio, and K. A. Zamudio. 1996. Central Nevada riparian field guide. USDA Forest Service Technical Report R4-ECOL-96-01. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.

  • Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985a. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. R4-Ecol-85-01. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 78 pp.

  • Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985b. Riparian community type classification of northern Utah and adjacent Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 104 pp.


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