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Thuja occidentalis / Gaylussacia baccata - Vaccinium angustifolium Woodland
Translated Name: Northern White-cedar / Black Huckleberry - Lowbush Blueberry Woodland
Common Name: Northern White-cedar / Heath Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL006411
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This northern white-cedar woodland occurs in widely scattered location in the Northern Appalachians. The substrate is acidic to circumneutral bedrock (usually basalt or gabbro) or coarse glacial till on moderate to steep slopes. Elevations range from near sea level at the coast to about 610 m (2000 feet) inland. The canopy is open, and lower layers are all generally sparse. The canopy is dominated by stunted Thuja occidentalis. Associated tree species include Pinus strobus, Betula papyrifera, Pinus resinosa, and Picea rubens. The understory is characterized by low heath shrubs including Gaylussacia baccata, Vaccinium angustifolium, Kalmia angustifolia, and Aronia melanocarpa. The herbaceous layer is of low diversity, composed of Pteridium aquilinum, Trientalis borealis, Maianthemum canadense, and Gaultheria procumbens. The bryoid layer includes Pleurozium schreberi, Hypnum imponens, Dicranum undulatum, Dicranum polysetum and Cladonia spp. At higher elevations inland, more boreal associates such as Picea mariana, Acer spicatum, Sorbus decora, and Gaultheria hispidula may be present. This association differs from other northern white-cedar rocky woodlands in the presence of heaths in the understory and the absence of any calciphiles or enriched site indicators, other than Thuja occidentalis.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: Based on limited samples. Potentially similar occurrences in the Great Lakes region should be compared.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Laurentian-Acadian Mesic Hardwood - Conifer Forest
Group Laurentian-Acadian Hemlock - White Pine - Hardwood Forest
Alliance Northern White-cedar Acidic Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002451 Thuja occidentalis Cliff Woodland
CEGL006508 Thuja occidentalis - Fraxinus pennsylvanica / Acer pensylvanicum Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Maine White cedar woodland Broader   Gawler 2002
New York Northern White Cedar Rocky Summit Broader   Edinger et al. 2002



Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.572 Laurentian-Acadian Calcareous Rocky Outcrop


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNR (18Apr2000)
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: ME, NY, VT
Canadian Province Distribution: NB
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This northern white-cedar woodland occurs along the Maine coast.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Fundy Coastal and Interior Section
Section Code: 212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: White Mountain Section
Section Code: M212A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Adirondack Mountain Section
Section Code: M212D Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy is open, and lower layers are all generally sparse. The canopy is dominated by stunted Thuja occidentalis. Associated tree species include Pinus strobus, Betula papyrifera, Pinus resinosa, and Picea rubens. The understory is characterized by low heath shrubs including Gaylussacia baccata, Vaccinium angustifolium, Kalmia angustifolia, and Aronia melanocarpa. The herbaceous layer is of low diversity, composed of Pteridium aquilinum, Trientalis borealis, Maianthemum canadense, and Gaultheria procumbens. The bryoid layer includes Pleurozium schreberi, Hypnum imponens, Dicranum undulatum, Dicranum polysetum and Cladonia spp. (= Cladina spp.). At higher elevations inland, more boreal associates such as Picea mariana, Acer spicatum, Sorbus decora, and Gaultheria hispidula may be present.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Thuja occidentalis GNR Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Gaylussacia baccata GNR Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Vaccinium angustifolium GNR Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This northern white-cedar woodland occurs in widely scattered location in the Northern Appalachians. The substrate is acidic to circumneutral bedrock (usually basalt or gabbro) or coarse glacial till on moderate to steep slopes. Elevations range from near sea level at the coast to about 610 m (2000 feet) inland.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): S. Gawler and L.A. Sneddon
Element Description Edition Date: 27Jan2003
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2000. Vegetation mapping of Acadia National Park: Classification, key, and vegetation types. A report from the Maine Natural Areas Program to The Nature Conservancy. Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME. 156 pp.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Lubinski, S., K. Hop, and S. Gawler. 2003. Vegetation Mapping Program: Acadia National Park, Maine. Report produced by U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, and Maine Natural Areas Program in conjunction with M. Story (NPS Vegetation Mapping Coordinator) NPS, Natural Resources Information Division, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and K. Brown (USGS Vegetation Mapping Coordinator), USGS, Center for Biological Informatics and NatureServe. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/ftp/vegmapping/acad/reports/acadrpt.pdf]

  • Moore, B., and N. Taylor. 1927. An ecological study of the vegetation of Mount Desert Island, Maine. Brooklyn Botanical Garden Memoirs 3:1-151.


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