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Salix boothii / Mesic Graminoids Wet Shrubland
Translated Name: Booth's Willow / Mesic Graminoids Wet Shrubland
Unique Identifier: CEGL001181
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This riparian community is currently known from Colorado, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, and Montana. This cold-deciduous shrubland occurs between 2045 and 2990 m (6700-9800 feet) in elevation. It occurs mostly on moist stream terraces, streambanks, gently sloping wide floodplains or sideslope seeps, and can be associated with beaver ponds. The local microtopography is highly variable, from smooth to very hummocky. Soil textures range from clay and fine loams to sandy-skeletal, usually over coarse alluvium. Water tables range from the surface to 80 cm (31 inches), and signs of mottling are common. Some stands receive runoff and seepage from irrigated pastures. These tall mesic shrublands are dominated by Salix boothii. Other willows are often present, but in lower amounts, and include Salix geyeriana, Salix wolfii, Salix lucida, Salix lutea, Salix drummondiana, and rarely Salix monticola. Ribes inerme and Lonicera involucrata may also be present. The herbaceous undergrowth is dominated by graminoids. No single graminoid species is consistently dominant or present in all stands, and typically, no single species can be said to dominate any one stand. Common graminoid species include Agrostis gigantea, Poa palustris, Phleum pratense, Deschampsia cespitosa, Carex hoodii, Carex pellita, Carex praegracilis, Carex praticola, Carex microptera, Juncus arcticus ssp. littoralis, and Glyceria striata. Forbs are usually present, and may be diverse, but are never as abundant as the graminoid cover. Forb species include Fragaria virginiana, Potentilla pulcherrima x hippiana, Symphyotrichum foliaceum, Mentha arvensis, Vicia americana, Veronica americana, Mimulus guttatus, Ranunculus cymbalaria, and Epilobium spp. This association is distinguished from Salix boothii / Mesic Forbs Wet Shrubland (CEGL001180) by having a higher cover of graminoid species. Stands with predominantly non-native graminoid species in the undergrowth are considered grazing-induced.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Hansen et al. (1995) lumped Salix boothii communities into the Salix geyeriana types due to similarities in environmental settings and management concerns. Both communities contain stands where Salix boothii is the dominant shrub. Differences in the understory composition are dependent on the specific substrate and moisture regime.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nb - Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Western North American Montane Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Western Montane-Subalpine Riparian & Seep Shrubland
Alliance Western Montane Tall Willow Wet Shrubland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL001180 Salix boothii / Mesic Forbs Wet Shrubland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Idaho Salix boothii / Mesic Graminoids Shrubland Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Montana Salix boothii Mesic Graminoids Shrubland Equivalent Certain MTNHP 2002
Wyoming Salix boothii / Mesic Graminoids Shrubland Equivalent Certain WNDD unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Salix boothii / Mesic Graminoid
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1988b. Riparian community type classification of Utah. Publication R4-ECOL-88-01. USDA Forest Service, Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.
Related Concept Name: Salix boothii / Mesic Graminoid Community Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.
Related Concept Name: Salix boothii / Mesic Graminoid Shrubland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.
Related Concept Name: Salix geyeriana Community Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES306.832 Rocky Mountain Subalpine-Montane Riparian Shrubland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3? (06Dec1999)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This association is known over a broad range including Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and possibly Wyoming and Montana. There are at least 21 known occurrences with at least 75 to 100 more expected. Invasion by non-native herbaceous species is cited as the greatest threat to this community. In mid-montane locations with low gradients, impacts from development in the riparian zone may alter this community.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CO, ID, MT, NV, UT, WY
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This riparian community is currently known from Colorado, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming and Montana.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Division
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 342 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northwestern Basin and Range Section
Section Code: 342B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Overthrust Mountains Section
Section Code: M331D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: South-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: North-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Parks and Ranges Section
Section Code: M331I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: These tall mesic shrublands are dominated by Salix boothii. Other willows are often present but in lower amounts. Other willow species include Salix geyeriana, Salix wolfii, Salix lucida, Salix lutea, Salix drummondiana, and Salix monticola. Ribes inerme and Lonicera involucrata may also be present. The herbaceous undergrowth is dominated by graminoids. No single graminoid species is consistently dominant or present in all stands, and typically, no single species can be said to dominate any one stand. Common graminoid species include Agrostis gigantea, Poa palustris, Phleum pratense, Deschampsia cespitosa, Carex hoodii, Carex pellita (= Carex lanuginosa), Carex praegracilis, Carex praticola, Carex microptera, Juncus arcticus ssp. littoralis (= Juncus balticus), and Glyceria striata. Forbs are usually present, and may be diverse, but are never as abundant as the graminoid cover. Forb species include Fragaria virginiana, Potentilla pulcherrima x hippiana, Symphyotrichum foliaceum, Mentha arvensis, Vicia americana, Veronica americana, Mimulus guttatus, Ranunculus cymbalaria, and Epilobium spp.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Salix boothii G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling
 
 
Salix drummondiana G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Salix lucida G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Salix wolfii G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Agrostis gigantea G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex pellita G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Deschampsia caespitosa G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Phleum pratense G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Poa palustris G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This cold-deciduous shrubland occurs between 2045 and 2990 m (6700-9800 feet) in elevation. It occurs mostly on moist stream terraces, streambanks, gently sloping wide floodplains or sideslope seeps, and can be associated with beaver ponds. The local micro-topography is highly variable, from smooth to very hummocky. Soil textures range from clay and fine-loams to sandy-skeletal, usually over coarse alluvium. Water tables range from the surface to 80 cm (31 inches), and signs of mottling are common. Some stands received runoff and seepage from irrigated pastures.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Western Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 09Aug2005
Element Description Author(s): J. Thompson, J. Stevens, G. Kittel
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Dec1999
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): J. Thompson, J. Stevens

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • CNHP [Colorado Natural Heritage Program]. 2006-2017. Tracked natural plant communities. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. [https://cnhp.colostate.edu/ourdata/trackinglist/plant_communities/]

  • Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Cogan, D., J. E. Taylor, and K. Schulz. 2012. Vegetation inventory project: Great Basin National Park. Natural Resource Report NPS/MOJN/NRR--2012/568. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 373 pp.

  • Cogan, D., K. Varga, and G. Kittel. 2005. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Grand Teton National Park and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway. Final Project Report 2002-2005 Vegetation Mapping Project. Technical Memorandum 8260-06-02. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO. 87 pp. plus Appendixes A-F.

  • Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Jones, G., and S. Ogle. 2000. Characterization abstracts for vegetation types on the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, and Shoshone national forests. Prepared for USDA Forest Service, Region 2 by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming.

  • MTNHP [Montana Natural Heritage Program]. 2002b. List of ecological communities for Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Montana State Library, Helena, MT.

  • Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1988b. Riparian community type classification of Utah. Publication R4-ECOL-88-01. USDA Forest Service, Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

  • Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

  • Reid, M. 1990. Yampa River Basin riparian vegetation classification project. Unpublished data prepared for The Nature Conservancy, Colorado Field Office and Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO.

  • Schulz, K. A., and M. E. Hall. 2011. Vegetation inventory project: Great Basin National Park. Unpublished report submitted to USDI National Park Service, Mojave Desert Inventory and Monitoring Network. NatureServe, Western Regional Office, Boulder, CO. 30 pp. plus Appendices A-H.

  • WNDD [Wyoming Natural Diversity Database]. No date. Unpublished data on file. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


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