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Quercus alba - Carya glabra - Fraxinus americana / Acer leucoderme / Vitis rotundifolia Forest
Translated Name: White Oak - Pignut Hickory - White Ash / Chalk Maple / Muscadine Forest
Common Name: Piedmont Rocky Mafic Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL004541
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This forest occurs on mafic rocky soils with some occurrences in Piedmont "boulder gardens." There are areas with large outcrops of mafic rock that extend to 8 m in height. Topographic settings range from flats to upper slopes and ridgetops; soils are xeric to submesic. Some occurrences may have up to 40% of the surface covered by boulders with most of the rest of the surface covered by leaf litter. The relatively open to closed canopy is dominated by Quercus alba, Quercus prinus, Quercus rubra var. rubra and Carya glabra with scattered Fraxinus americana over a well-developed, approximately 4-8 m tall, subcanopy of Acer leucoderme. Other species in the canopy and subcanopy include Carya carolinae-septentrionalis, Chionanthus virginicus, Prunus serotina var. serotina, Acer rubrum, Cornus florida, Diospyros virginiana, Nyssa sylvatica, Pinus echinata, Quercus marilandica, Quercus stellata, Celtis tenuifolia, Cercis canadensis, and Quercus velutina. The vine layer is well-developed, and Vitis rotundifolia is common. The herbaceous layer is sparse, and the shrub stratum is sparse to not present. Other vine and herb species present are Aristolochia serpentaria, Asclepias verticillata, Chimaphila maculata, Clitoria mariana, Clematis ochroleuca, Danthonia spicata, Dichanthelium boscii, Dichanthelium depauperatum, Euphorbia corollata, Galium circaezans, Lonicera sempervirens, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Piptochaetium avenaceum, Scleria triglomerata, Smilax bona-nox, and Smilax glauca. The dominance of Vitis rotundifolia in the shrub layer is characteristic and distinctive.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This association is described from Stony Mountain, Stanley County, North Carolina. It is also present at "Nifty Rocks" in the Uwharrie National Forest, which is the type locality.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Southern & South-Central Oak - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Chinquapin Oak - Shumard Oak - Blue Ash Alkaline Forest & Woodland
Alliance Piedmont-Appalachian Ash - Hickory Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004542 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus - Tilia americana var. caroliniana / Ostrya virginiana Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Basic Oak--Hickory Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Dry Basic Oak-Hickory Forest (Uwharrie Boulderfield Subtype)
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Schafale, M. 2003a. Fourth approximation guide. Piedmont communities. March 2003 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.339 Southern Piedmont Dry Oak-(Pine) Forest and Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2? (15Oct1996)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GApotentially occurs, NC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association occurs in the Piedmont from North Carolina apparently ranging to Georgia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The relatively open to closed canopy of stands of this association is dominated by Quercus alba, Quercus prinus, Quercus rubra var. rubra, and Carya glabra with scattered Fraxinus americana over a well-developed, approximately 4- to 8-m tall subcanopy of Acer leucoderme. Other species in the canopy and subcanopy include Carya carolinae-septentrionalis, Chionanthus virginicus, Prunus serotina var. serotina, Acer rubrum, Cornus florida, Diospyros virginiana, Nyssa sylvatica, Pinus echinata, Quercus marilandica, Quercus stellata, Celtis tenuifolia, Cercis canadensis, and Quercus velutina. The vine layer is well-developed, and Vitis rotundifolia is common. The herbaceous layer is sparse, and the shrub stratum is sparse to not present. Other vine and herb species present are Aristolochia serpentaria, Asclepias verticillata, Chimaphila maculata, Clitoria mariana, Clematis ochroleuca, Danthonia spicata, Dichanthelium boscii, Dichanthelium depauperatum, Euphorbia corollata, Galium circaezans, Lonicera sempervirens, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Piptochaetium avenaceum, Scleria triglomerata, Smilax bona-nox, and Smilax glauca. A related example from the Oconee National Forest of Georgia is tentatively placed here. It occurs in a site with gabbroic boulders at the surface. The subcanopy maple is Acer barbatum not Acer leucoderme, and there are some additional floristic differences (NatureServe Ecology unpubl. data).


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This forest occurs on mafic rocky soils with some occurrences in Piedmont "boulder gardens." These are areas with large outcrops of mafic rock that extend to 8 m in height. Topographic settings range from flats to upper slopes and ridgetops; soils are xeric to submesic. Some occurrences may have up to 40% of the surface covered by boulders with most of the rest of the surface covered by leaf litter. This habitat is described as rocky and dry-mesic; this is distinct from rocky mesic forests on the one hand, and from more xeric woodlands on the other.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): R.K. Peet
Element Description Edition Date: 26Nov1997
Element Description Author(s): R.K. Peet

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Schafale, M. 2003a. Fourth approximation guide. Piedmont communities. March 2003 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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