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Salix geyeriana / Calamagrostis canadensis Wet Shrubland
Translated Name: Geyer's Willow / Bluejoint Wet Shrubland
Unique Identifier: CEGL001205
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This riparian shrubland often forms large expanses of willows on broad montane valley floors. Stands have a 2- to 3-m tall, cold-deciduous shrub canopy that is dominated by Salix geyeriana. The ground is usually hummocky with a dense herbaceous layer that is dominated by the perennial graminoid Calamagrostis canadensis. These shrublands are often associated with beaver-created wetlands. This shrubland generally occurs on broad, flat mountain valleys where the valley gradient is not more than 5% between 1585 and 3050 m (5200-10,000 feet) in elevation. It is known from Idaho, Montana, Utah, Nevada, Wyoming and Colorado. This is a tall, cold-deciduous willow shrubland with an open canopy of Salix geyeriana. The stands are generally open with only 40% cover but can occur with a near-continuous canopy. A shorter shrub layer is often present, these generally tucked underneath the taller willows, even in more open stands, although short shrubs away from the taller canopy are not unexpected. Common coexisting tall shrubs include Salix boothii and Salix drummondiana. Common shorter shrub species include Salix planifolia, Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda, Lonicera involucrata, Ribes lacustre, and Betula glandulosa. The undergrowth is a very thick carpet of graminoids dominated by Calamagrostis canadensis. Carex aquatilis and Carex utriculata are often present but never in as great abundance as Calamagrostis canadensis. Bromus ciliatus, Poa pratensis, Deschampsia cespitosa, and Phleum alpinum are also commonly encountered. Forbs contribute very little to the overall biomass but are always present in small amounts. No species are consistently present, but often seen species include Geum macrophyllum, Thalictrum fendleri, Heracleum maximum, and Fragaria virginiana.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nb - Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Western North American Montane Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Western Montane-Subalpine Riparian & Seep Shrubland
Alliance Western Montane Tall Willow Wet Shrubland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL001206 Salix geyeriana / Carex aquatilis Wet Shrubland
CEGL001247 Salix geyeriana - Salix monticola / Calamagrostis canadensis Wet Shrubland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Idaho Salix geyeriana / Calamagrostis canadensis Shrubland Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Montana Salix geyeriana / Calamagrostis canadensis Shrubland Equivalent Certain MTNHP 2002
Wyoming Salix geyeriana / Calamagrostis canadensis Shrubland Equivalent Certain WNDD unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Salix geyeriana / Calamagrostis canadensis Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]
Related Concept Name: Salix geyeriana / Calamagrostis canadensis Community Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Mutz, K. M., and J. Queiroz. 1983. Riparian community classification for the Centennial Mountains and South Fork Salmon River, Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service Intermountain Region under contract 53-84M8-2-0048 by Meiiji Resource Consultants, Layton, UT. 168 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Tuhy, J. S., and S. Jensen. 1982. Riparian classification for the Upper Salmon and Middle Fork Salmon River drainages, Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region by White Horse Associates, Smithfield, UT. 183 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Walford, G., G. Jones, W. Fertig, S. Mellman-Brown, and K. Houston. 2001. Riparian and wetland plant community types of the Shoshone National Forest. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-85. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO. 122 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985a. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. R4-Ecol-85-01. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 78 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Hall, J. B., and P. L. Hansen. 1997. A preliminary riparian habitat type classification system for the Bureau of Land Management districts in southern and eastern Idaho. Riparian and Wetland Research Program, School of Forestry, University of Montana. Idaho Bureau of Land Management, Technical Bulletin No. 97-11. 381 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salix geyeriana / Calamagrostis canadensis Ecological Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Girard, M., D. L. Wheeler, and S. B. Mills. 1997. Classification of riparian communities on the Bighorn National Forest. R2-RR-97-02. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Sheridan, WY. 308 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salix geyeriana / Calamagrostis canadensis Habitat Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.
Related Concept Name: Salix geyeriana / Calamagrostis canadensis Shrubland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.
Related Concept Name: Salix geyeriana/Calamagrostis canadensis
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Salix geyeriana / Mesic Graminoid Community Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Manning, M. E., and W. G. Padgett. 1995. Riparian community type classification for Humboldt and Toiyabe national forests, Nevada and eastern California. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 306 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salix spp. / Calamagrostis canadensis
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.
Related Concept Name: Geyer willow/bluejoint reedgrass (Salix geyeriana/Calamagrostis canadensis) Plant Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, and J. Sanderson. 1999a. A classification of the riparian plant associations of the Rio Grande and Closed Basin watersheds, Colorado. Unpublished report prepared by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES306.832 Rocky Mountain Subalpine-Montane Riparian Shrubland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G5 (01Feb1996)
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CO, ID, MT, OR, UT, WY
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: It is known from Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Utah, Nevada, Wyoming and Colorado.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Division
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 342 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Snake River Basalts Section
Section Code: 342D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Yellowstone Highlands Section
Section Code: M331A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Overthrust Mountains Section
Section Code: M331D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: South-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: North-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Parks and Ranges Section
Section Code: M331I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Idaho Batholith Section
Section Code: M332A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Beaverhead Mountains Section
Section Code: M332E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Northern Rocky Mountain Forest - Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M333 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Flathead Valley Section
Section Code: M333B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bitterroot Mountains Section
Section Code: M333D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This is a tall, cold-deciduous willow shrubland with an open canopy of Salix geyeriana. The stands are generally open with only 40% cover but can occur with a near-continuous canopy. A shorter shrub layer is often present, these generally tucked underneath the taller willows, even in more open stands, although short shrubs away from the taller canopy are not unexpected. Common coexisting tall shrubs include Salix boothii and Salix drummondiana. Common shorter shrub species include Salix planifolia, Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda (= Pentaphylloides floribunda), Lonicera involucrata, Ribes lacustre, and Betula glandulosa. The undergrowth is a very thick carpet of graminoids dominated by Calamagrostis canadensis. Carex aquatilis and Carex utriculata are often present but never in as great abundance as Calamagrostis canadensis. Bromus ciliatus, Poa pratensis, Deschampsia cespitosa, and Phleum alpinum are also commonly encountered. Forbs contribute very little to the overall biomass but are always present in small amounts. No species are consistently present, but often seen species include Geum macrophyllum, Thalictrum fendleri, Heracleum maximum, and Fragaria virginiana.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Salix geyeriana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling
 
 
Ribes inerme G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Calamagrostis canadensis G5 Graminoid Herb (field)
 
 
Carex aquatilis G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Poa pratensis G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This shrubland generally occurs on broad, flat mountain valleys where the valley gradient is not more than 5% between 1585 and 3050 m (5200-10,000 feet) in elevation. It is known from Idaho, Montana, Utah, Nevada and Colorado. It is often associated with active and abandoned beaver ponds and dams and can also occupy wet soils around seeps and springs. Typically it occurs on flat, broad floodplains, but it has been seen in narrow valleys and long narrow streambanks as well. Soils are generally fine silty loams with considerable organic matter. The stands often have hummocky microtopography differentiating the very wet-tolerant herbaceous species from the less wet species.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Western Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 16Jun2005
Element Description Author(s): G. Kittel

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • CNHP [Colorado Natural Heritage Program]. 2006-2017. Tracked natural plant communities. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. [https://cnhp.colostate.edu/ourdata/trackinglist/plant_communities/]

  • Carsey, K., D. Cooper, K. Decker, D. Culver, and G. Kittel. 2003b. Statewide wetlands classification and characterization: Wetland plant associations of Colorado. Prepared for Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Denver, by Colorado Natural Heritage Program, College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. 79 pp. [http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/documents/2003/wetland_classification_final_report_2003.pdf]

  • Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Cogan, D., K. Varga, and G. Kittel. 2005. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Grand Teton National Park and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway. Final Project Report 2002-2005 Vegetation Mapping Project. Technical Memorandum 8260-06-02. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO. 87 pp. plus Appendixes A-F.

  • Cooper, D. J., and T. R. Cottrell. 1990. Classification of riparian vegetation in the northern Colorado Front Range. Unpublished report prepared for The Nature Conservancy, Colorado Field Office, Boulder. 115 pp.

  • Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]

  • Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.

  • Girard, M., D. L. Wheeler, and S. B. Mills. 1997. Classification of riparian communities on the Bighorn National Forest. R2-RR-97-02. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Sheridan, WY. 308 pp.

  • Hall, J. B., and P. L. Hansen. 1997. A preliminary riparian habitat type classification system for the Bureau of Land Management districts in southern and eastern Idaho. Riparian and Wetland Research Program, School of Forestry, University of Montana. Idaho Bureau of Land Management, Technical Bulletin No. 97-11. 381 pp.

  • Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.

  • Hansen, P., K. Boggs, and R. Pfister. 1991. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites in Montana. Unpublished draft version prepared for Montana Riparian Association, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula. 478 pp.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Johnston, B. C. 1987. Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas. R2-ECOL-87-2. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. Lakewood, CO. 429 pp.

  • Jones, G., and S. Ogle. 2000. Characterization abstracts for vegetation types on the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, and Shoshone national forests. Prepared for USDA Forest Service, Region 2 by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming.

  • Kettler, S., and A. McMullen. 1996. Routt National Forest riparian vegetation classification. Report prepared for Routt National Forest by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

  • Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.

  • Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, and J. Sanderson. 1999a. A classification of the riparian plant associations of the Rio Grande and Closed Basin watersheds, Colorado. Unpublished report prepared by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

  • Kittel, G., R. Rondeau, N. Lederer, and D. Randolph. 1994. A classification of the riparian vegetation of the White and Colorado River basins, Colorado. Final report submitted to Colorado Department of Natural Resources and the Environmental Protection Agency. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Boulder. 166 pp.

  • MTNHP [Montana Natural Heritage Program]. 2002b. List of ecological communities for Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Montana State Library, Helena, MT.

  • Manning, M. E., and W. G. Padgett. 1995. Riparian community type classification for Humboldt and Toiyabe national forests, Nevada and eastern California. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 306 pp.

  • Mutz, K. M., and J. Queiroz. 1983. Riparian community classification for the Centennial Mountains and South Fork Salmon River, Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service Intermountain Region under contract 53-84M8-2-0048 by Meiiji Resource Consultants, Layton, UT. 168 pp.

  • Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

  • Salas, D., J. Stevens, and K. Schulz. 2005. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Technical Memorandum No. 8260-05-02. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO. 161 pp. plus Appendices A-L (733 pp.).

  • Tuhy, J. S., and S. Jensen. 1982. Riparian classification for the Upper Salmon and Middle Fork Salmon River drainages, Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region by White Horse Associates, Smithfield, UT. 183 pp.

  • WNDD [Wyoming Natural Diversity Database]. No date. Unpublished data on file. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

  • Walford, G., G. Jones, W. Fertig, S. Mellman-Brown, and K. Houston. 2001. Riparian and wetland plant community types of the Shoshone National Forest. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-85. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO. 122 pp.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.

  • Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985a. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. R4-Ecol-85-01. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 78 pp.


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