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Danthonia compressa - (Sibbaldiopsis tridentata) Grassland
Translated Name: Flattened Oatgrass - (Shrubby Fivefingers) Grassland
Common Name: Grassy Bald (Southern Grass Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL004242
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community consists of graminoid-dominated vegetation with scattered shrubs, occurring on moderate to high-elevation peaks and saddles in the Southern Blue Ridge. Characteristically, this vegetation is strongly dominated by Danthonia compressa, or in some areas codominated by the subshrub Sibbaldiopsis tridentata (= Potentilla tridentata). Other characteristic herbaceous species are Angelica triquinata, Carex pensylvanica, Carex debilis, Carex intumescens, Carex brunnescens, Deschampsia flexuosa, Erythronium umbilicatum ssp. monostolum, Gentiana austromontana, Gentianella quinquefolia, Houstonia serpyllifolia, Ionactis linariifolius (= Aster linariifolius), Lysimachia quadrifolia, Oclemena acuminata (= Aster acuminatus), Potentilla canadensis, Prenanthes roanensis, Smilax herbacea, Solidago bicolor, Solidago glomerata, Stachys clingmanii, and Trautvetteria caroliniensis var. caroliniensis. The floristic composition is a mixture of widespread species, northern disjunct species, such as Agrostis mertensii, Carex siccata (= Carex aenea), Minuartia groenlandica, Packera schweinitziana (= Senecio schweinitzianus), and Sibbaldiopsis tridentata, and Southern Appalachian endemics, such as Erythronium umbilicatum ssp. monostolum, Geum geniculatum, Geum radiatum, Houstonia serpyllifolia, Lilium grayi, Prenanthes roanensis, Solidago glomerata, and Stachys clingmanii). Typical shrubs (which may occur as scattered individuals or as patches) are Rhododendron calendulaceum, Rhododendron catawbiense, Menziesia pilosa, Vaccinium corymbosum, and Rubus canadensis. Species indicative of past grazing include Phleum pratense, Agrostis gigantea, Hieracium scabrum, Rumex acetosella, and Prunella vulgaris. This community occurs on high-elevation (usually above 1350 m [4500 feet]), often south- to southwest-facing domes, ridgetops, and gentle slopes. Strong winds, high rainfall, frequent fog, shallow rocky soils, and extremes of temperature and moisture are characteristic of these environments. It is known from the highest elevations of the southern Appalachian Mountains. It is typically surrounded by dwarfed forests dominated by Fagus grandifolia or Quercus rubra.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Notable examples include various peaks of the Roan Mountain complex, Long Hope Valley, Shining Rock Wilderness, and Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The origin of this community is not clear, and in fact, several mechanisms, both natural and anthropogenic, have been proposed including fire, grazing, trampling, clearing, climatic change, windthrow, or some combination of these influences. The presence of northern disjunct species requiring open habitat may suggest that some of these areas have been open since the Ice Age. A. Weakley (pers. comm.) suggests that the balds of Roan Mountain, Tennessee, are primarily natural, whereas those farther north are of anthropogenic origin. It appears that new occurrences of this community are not being created, and those that exist are being encroached by shrub and tree species. Lindsay (1976) reported that examples of this community in Great Smoky Mountains National Park will have disappeared by the end of the century if management is not undertaken to halt invasion by woody plants. However, these balds are among those most likely to be of anthropogenic origin. Six plots from Roan Mountain, Whitetop Mountain, and Gregory Bald were classified as this association in the Appalachian Trail project (Fleming and Patterson 2009a). Several plots have high cover by shrubs (Amelanchier laevis, Rhododendron catawbiense, Rubus canadensis, Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium erythrocarpum, Vaccinium pallidum) indicating woody encroachment or plot placement in an ecotone. Species that have >67% constancy are, in order of descending constancy, Danthonia compressa, Sibbaldiopsis tridentata, Dennstaedtia punctilobula, Carex debilis var. rudgei, Rubus canadensis, Rumex acetosella, and Saxifraga michauxii.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.B - Temperate & Boreal Grassland & Shrubland
Formation 2.B.2 - Temperate Grassland & Shrubland
Division 2.B.2.Nc - Eastern North American Grassland & Shrubland
Macrogroup Appalachian Rocky Felsic & Mafic Scrub & Grassland
Group Southern Appalachian Grass Bald
Alliance Southern Appalachian Pennsylvania Sedge - Flattened Oatgrass Grass Bald

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Grassy Bald (Grass Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012
Tennessee Danthonia compressa - (Sibbaldiopsis tridentata) Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Danthonia compressa - Carex brunnescens ssp. sphaerostachya - Sibbaldiopsis tridentata Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Grass Balds, BR
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Pyne, M. 1994. Tennessee natural communities. Unpublished document. Tennessee Department of Conservation, Ecology Service Division, Nashville. 7 pp.
Related Concept Name: Grassy Bald
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Grassy Bald (Grassy Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2002. Fourth approximation guide. Mountain communities. November 2002 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: Grassy Bald (Northern Grass Subtype)
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: Grassy Bald (Southern Grass Subtype)
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: ID9a. Grass Bald
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Southern Appalachian Shrub / Grass Bald
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.294 Southern Appalachian Grass and Shrub Bald


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (14Dec1998)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This community has small range, few occurrences, and is rapidly disappearing due to vegetational succession. This community is threatened by high levels of recreational use and the introduction of exotic plant and animal species, as well as by successional trends of uncertain cause.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NC, TN, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This montane sparse dwarf-shrubland is found in the high mountain areas of the Southern Appalachians. While the majority of examples occur in North Carolina, this community is also known from Tennessee and Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This vegetation is graminoid-dominated with scattered shrubs. Most occurrences are strongly dominated by Danthonia compressa, but some sites are codominated by the subshrub Sibbaldiopsis tridentata (= Potentilla tridentata). Other characteristic herbaceous species are Angelica triquinata, Carex pensylvanica, Carex debilis var. rudgei, Carex intumescens, Carex brunnescens ssp. sphaerostachya, Deschampsia flexuosa, Erythronium umbilicatum ssp. monostolum, Gentiana austromontana, Gentianella quinquefolia, Houstonia serpyllifolia, Ionactis linariifolius (= Aster linariifolius), Lysimachia quadrifolia, Oclemena acuminata (= Aster acuminatus), Potentilla canadensis, Prenanthes roanensis, Smilax herbacea, Solidago bicolor, Solidago glomerata, Stachys clingmanii, and Trautvetteria caroliniensis var. caroliniensis. The floristic composition is a mixture of widespread species, northern disjunct species such as Sibbaldiopsis tridentata; and Southern Appalachian endemics such as Houstonia serpyllifolia, Lilium grayi, and Prenanthes roanensis. Typical shrubs, which may occur as scattered individuals or patches are Rhododendron calendulaceum, Rhododendron catawbiense, Menziesia pilosa, Vaccinium corymbosum, and Rubus canadensis. Invasive, introduced species indicative of past grazing include Phleum pratense, Agrostis gigantea, Hieracium caespitosum, Poa compressa, Rumex acetosella, and Prunella vulgaris.

In the least disturbed, most natural areas, the most abundant or characteristic herbaceous associates are Carex brunnescens ssp. sphaerostachya, Carex debilis var. rudgei, Lysimachia quadrifolia, Dennstaedtia punctilobula, Carex pensylvanica, Potentilla canadensis, Prenanthes roanensis, Solidago rugosa, Ageratina altissima var. roanensis, and Hypericum mitchellianum. Despite the exposed topography, atmospheric conditions create a very moist microclimate, as evidenced by large populations of species often associated with wetlands, including Helenium autumnale, Packera aurea, Houstonia serpyllifolia, Solidago patula, and Carex intumescens.

Rare or northern disjunct plant species reported from this community include Agrostis mertensii, Alnus viridis ssp. crispa, Botrychium multifidum, Calamagrostis canadensis, Carex siccata (= Carex aenea), Carex cristatella, Carex misera, Delphinium exaltatum, Gentiana austromontana, Geum geniculatum, Houstonia purpurea var. montana, Huperzia selago, Hypericum buckleii, Lilium grayi, Lilium philadelphicum, Lycopodium dendroideum, Lycopodium hickeyi, Minuartia groenlandica, Monarda media, Phlox subulata, Platanthera grandiflora, Poa palustris, Prenanthes roanensis, Rhododendron cumberlandense, Rhododendron vaseyi, Packera schweinitziana (= Senecio schweinitzianus), Spiranthes ochroleuca, and Trisetum spicatum (Schafale and Weakley 1990). Exotic species that occur, probably as a result of grazing, include Prunella vulgaris, Phleum pratense, and Poa compressa.


Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Abies fraseri G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Alnus viridis ssp. crispa G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Rhododendron cumberlandense G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Rhododendron vaseyi G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Vaccinium hirsutum G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Sibbaldiopsis tridentata G1 Dwarf-shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Hypericum buckleii G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Rhododendron calendulaceum G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Rubus allegheniensis G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Ageratina altissima var. roanensis G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Allium allegheniense G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Cuscuta rostrata G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Delphinium exaltatum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Erythronium umbilicatum ssp. monostolum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Gentiana austromontana G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Geum geniculatum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Geum radiatum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Hieracium caespitosum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Houstonia purpurea var. montana G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Houstonia serpyllifolia G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Hypericum graveolens G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Hypericum mitchellianum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lilium grayi G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lilium philadelphicum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lysimachia quadrifolia G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Minuartia groenlandica G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Monarda media G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Packera schweinitziana G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Phlox subulata G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Platanthera grandiflora G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Potentilla canadensis G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Prenanthes roanensis G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Prunella vulgaris G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Rumex acetosella G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Solidago glomerata G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Solidago roanensis G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Spiranthes ochroleuca G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Stachys clingmanii G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Botrychium multifidum G1 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Huperzia appalachiana G1 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Huperzia selago G1 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Lycopodium dendroideum G1 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Lycopodium hickeyi G1 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Agrostis gigantea G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Agrostis mertensii G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Agrostis perennans G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Agrostis stolonifera G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Calamagrostis canadensis G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex brunnescens G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex brunnescens ssp. sphaerostachya G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex cristatella G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex debilis G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex debilis var. rudgei G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex misera G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex normalis G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex pensylvanica G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex siccata G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Danthonia compressa G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Danthonia spicata G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Deschampsia flexuosa G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Phleum pratense G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Poa compressa G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Poa palustris G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Trisetum spicatum G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Abies fraseri
  (Fraser Fir)
G2  
Ageratina altissima var. roanensis
  (Appalachian White Snakeroot)
G5T3T4  
Allium allegheniense
  (Allegheny Onion)
G3?  
Carex misera
  (Wretched Sedge)
G3  
Delphinium exaltatum
  (Tall Larkspur)
G3  
Erythronium umbilicatum ssp. monostolum
  (Dimpled Trout-lily)
G5T3  
Gentiana austromontana
  (Appalachian Gentian)
G3  
Geum geniculatum
  (Bent Avens)
G2  
Geum radiatum
  (Spreading Avens)
G2 LE: Listed endangered
Houstonia purpurea var. montana
  (Mountain Bluet)
G5T2 LE: Listed endangered
Hypericum buckleii
  (Blue Ridge St. John's-wort)
G3  
Hypericum graveolens
  (Mountain St. John's-wort)
G3  
Hypericum mitchellianum
  (Blue Ridge St. John's-wort)
G3  
Lilium grayi
  (Gray's Lily)
G3  
Microtus chrotorrhinus carolinensis
  (Southern Rock Vole)
G4T3  
Prenanthes roanensis
  (Roan Mountain Rattlesnake-root)
G3  
Rhododendron vaseyi
  (Pink-shell Azalea)
G3  
Solidago glomerata
  (Skunk Goldenrod)
G3  
Stachys clingmanii
  (Clingman's Hedge-nettle)
G2  
Thryomanes bewickii altus
  (Appalachian Bewick's Wren)
G5T2Q  
Vaccinium hirsutum
  (Hairy Blueberry)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This community occurs on high-elevation (usually above 1350 m [4500 feet]), often south- to southwest-facing domes, ridgetops, and gentle slopes. Strong winds, high rainfall, frequent fog, shallow rocky soils, and extremes of temperature and moisture are characteristic of these environments. In North Carolina and Tennessee, this grassland vegetation is typically surrounded by dwarfed forests dominated by Fagus grandifolia or Quercus rubra. On Whitetop Mountain, Virginia, the type occurs at elevations from 1525-1655 m (5000-5430 feet), adjacent to both well-developed Picea rubens-dominated forests and stunted northern hardwoods. Soils are extremely acidic (pH = 3.8), with low (5%) base saturation, high aluminum levels (1600 ppm), and relatively high (27%) organic matter content.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: The origin and ecological dynamics of this vegetation type are not clear. Several disturbance mechanisms, both natural and anthropogenic, have been hypothesized, including fire, grazing, trampling, clearing, climatic change, windthrow, or some combination of these influences. The importance of megaherbivores in long-term bald maintenance has recently been proposed (Wiegl and Knowles 1999). It appears that new occurrences of this community are not being created, and that many existing ones are being encroached by shrub and tree species. The presence of northern disjunct species requiring open habitat suggests that some of these areas have been open since the Pleistocene. This is the case at Whitetop Mountain, Virginia, although there is little question that the original openings were greatly expanded during a long history of grazing and the development of a 19th century resort. A. Weakley (pers. comm. 2001) suggests that the balds of Roan Mountain, Tennessee, are primarily natural, whereas those farther north are of anthropogenic origin.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): K.D. Patterson
Element Description Edition Date: 21Jun2001
Element Description Author(s): K.D. Patterson
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Dec1998
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Allard, D. J., K. M. Doyle, S. J. Landaal, and R. S. Martin. 1990. Community characterization abstracts for the southeastern United States. Unpublished manuscript. The Nature Conservancy, Southern Heritage Task Force, Chapel Hill, NC.

  • Billings, W. D., and A. F. Mark. 1957. Factors involved in the persistence of montane treeless balds. Ecology 38:140-142.

  • Bratton, S. P. 1975. The effect of the European wild boar, Sus scrofa, on Gray beech forest in the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecology 56:1356-1366.

  • Cain, S. A. 1931. Ecological studies of the vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. I. Soil reaction and plant distribution. Botanical Gazette 91:22-41.

  • DeSelm, H. R., and N. Murdock. 1993. Grass-dominated communities. Pages 87-141 in: W. H. Martin, S. G. Boyce, and A. C. Echternacht, editors. Biodiversity of the southeastern United States: Upland terrestrial communities. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Gersmehl, P. 1973. Pseudo-timberline: The Southern Appalachian grassy balds. Arctic and Alpine Research 9:A137-A138.

  • Gersmehl, P. J. 1969. A geographic evaluation of the ecotonal hypothesis of bald location in the Southern Appalachians. Proceedings of the American Society of Geographers 1:51-54.

  • Gersmehl, P. J. 1971. Factors involved in the persistence of Southern Appalachian treeless balds: An experimental study. Proceedings of the Association of American Geographers 3:56-61.

  • Lindsay, M. 1976. History of the grassy balds of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. USDI National Park Service, Uplands Field Research Lab. Research/Resources Management Report No. 4. Gatlinburg, TN. 215 pp.

  • Lindsay, M. 1977. Management of grassy balds in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. USDI National Park Service, Southeast Region, Uplands Field Research Laboratory. Research/Resources Management Report No. 17. Gatlinburg, TN. 67 pp.

  • Lindsay, M. 1978. The vegetation of the grassy balds and other high elevation disturbed areas in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. USDI National Park Service, Southeast Region. Uplands Field Research Laboratory. Research/Resources Management Report SER-26. Atlanta, GA. 150 pp.

  • Lindsay, M. M., and S. P. Bratton. 1979a. Grassy balds of the Great Smoky Mountains: Their history and flora in relation to potential management. Environmental Management 3:417-430.

  • Lindsay, M. M., and S. P. Bratton. 1979b. The vegetation of grassy balds and other high elevation disturbed areas in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 106:264-275.

  • Lindsay, M. M., and S. P. Bratton. 1980. The rate of woody plant invasion on two grassy balds. Castanea 45:75-87.

  • Mark, A. F. 1958. The ecology of the Southern Appalachian grass balds. Ecological Monographs 28:293-336.

  • Mark, A. F. 1959. The flora of the grass balds and fields of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Castanea 24:1-21.

  • NCNHP [North Carolina Natural Heritage Program]. 1993. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program biennial protection plan. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 120 pp.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Pyne, M. 1994. Tennessee natural communities. Unpublished document. Tennessee Department of Conservation, Ecology Service Division, Nashville. 7 pp.

  • Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. 2002. Fourth approximation guide. Mountain communities. November 2002 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Stratton, D. A., and P. S. White. 1982. Grassy balds of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Vascular plant floristics, rare plant distributions, and an assessment of the floristic data base. USDI National Park Service, Southeast Region. Uplands Field Research Laboratory. Research/Resources Management Report SER-58. Gatlinburg, TN.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.

  • Weakley, Alan, PhD. Personal communication. Curator, UNC Herbarium, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Formerly Chief Ecologist, NatureServe, Southeast Region, Durham, NC.

  • Wiegl, P. D., and T. W. Knowles. 1999. Antiquity of Southern Appalachian grass balds: The role of keystone megaherbivores. Pages 215-223 in: R. P. Eckerlin, editor. Proceedings of the Appalachian Biogeography Symposium, Virginia Museum of Natural History Special Publication Number 7.


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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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Data last updated: November 2016