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Distichlis spicata Alkaline Wet Meadow
Translated Name: Saltgrass Alkaline Wet Meadow
Common Name: Saltgrass Saline Prairie
Unique Identifier: CEGL001770
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: These grasslands occur in semi-arid and arid western North America from southern Saskatchewan, Canada, to Mexico. Vegetation cover is sparse to dense and is dominated by Distichlis spicata, occurring in nearly pure stands. Minor cover of associated graminoids may include Muhlenbergia asperifolia, Hordeum jubatum, Pascopyrum smithii, Sporobolus airoides, Carex filifolia, Eleocharis palustris, Puccinellia nuttalliana, and Juncus balticus. Associated forbs, such as Iva axillaris, Helianthus spp., Asteraceae spp. (from lower salinity sites), Salicornia rubra, Triglochin maritima, and Suaeda spp., may also be present. Shrubs are rare, but scattered Atriplex canescens and Sarcobatus vermiculatus may be present. Stands are found in lowland habitats such as playas, swales, and terraces along washes that are typically intermittently to seasonally flooded. The flooding is usually the result of highly localized thunderstorms or winter rains which can flood one basin and leave the next dry. However, this association may also occur in other flood regimes (temporarily and semipermanently). Soil texture ranges from clay loam, silty loam, to sandy clay. These soils are often deep, saline and alkaline. They generally have an impermeable layer and therefore are poorly drained. When the soil is dry, the surface usually has salt accumulations. Salinity is likely more important than flooding as an environmental factor.



Classification

Classification Confidence: High
Classification Comments: This association is defined as a PNV vegetation type. This graminoid association is characteristically dominated by Distichlis spicata. Closely related communities include Pascopyrum smithii - Distichlis spicata Wet Meadow (CEGL001580), Sporobolus airoides - Distichlis spicata Wet Meadow (CEGL001687), and several others.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.5 - Salt Marsh
Division 2.C.5.Nd - North American Western Interior Brackish Marsh, Playa & Shrubland
Macrogroup Warm & Cool Desert Alkali-Saline Marsh, Playa & Shrubland
Group North American Desert Alkaline-Saline Marsh & Playa
Alliance Saltgrass Alkaline Wet Meadow

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL001481 Leymus cinereus - Distichlis spicata Alkaline Wet Meadow
CEGL001580 Pascopyrum smithii - Distichlis spicata Wet Meadow
CEGL001687 Sporobolus airoides - Distichlis spicata Wet Meadow
CEGL001771 Distichlis spicata - Mixed Herb Wet Meadow
CEGL001772 Distichlis spicata - Lepidium perfoliatum Wet Meadow
CEGL001773 Distichlis spicata - (Scirpus nevadensis) Alkaline Wet Meadow
CEGL001834 Eleocharis palustris - Distichlis spicata Marsh
CEGL002031 Distichlis spicata - Hordeum jubatum - (Poa arida, Iva annua) Wet Meadow
CEGL002039 Polygonum spp. - Echinochloa spp. - Distichlis spicata Playa Lake Wet Meadow
CEGL002042 Distichlis spicata - (Hordeum jubatum, Poa arida, Sporobolus airoides) Wet Meadow
CEGL002043 Distichlis spicata - Schoenoplectus maritimus - Salicornia rubra Wet Meadow
CEGL002273 Distichlis spicata - Hordeum jubatum - Puccinellia nuttalliana - Suaeda calceoliformis Wet Meadow
CEGL002275 Distichlis spicata - Spartina spp. Wet Meadow
CEGL002551 Distichlis spicata - Hordeum jubatum - Puccinellia nuttalliana - Plantago maritima Saline Wet Meadow



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Colorado Distichlis spicata Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain CNHP 2015
Idaho Distichlis stricta Community Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Montana Distichlis spicata Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain MTNHP 2002
Nevada Distichlis spicata Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Peterson 2008
New Mexico Distichlis spicata-Eustoma exaltum CT Finer Somewhat certain Muldavin et al. 2000
New Mexico Distichlis spicata Monotype Equivalent Somewhat certain Muldavin et al. 2000
Oregon Distichlis spicata Playa Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Distichlis spicata ssp. stricta Salt Meadow Plant Association
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Baker, W. L. 1984a. A preliminary classification of the natural vegetation of Colorado. Great Basin Naturalist 44(4):647-676.
Related Concept Name: Distichlis spicata var. stricta
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.
Related Concept Name: Distichlis spicata
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Evens, J. M., K. Sikes, D. Hastings, and J. Ratchford. 2014. Vegetation alliance descriptions for Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Death Valley National Park and Mojave National Preserve. Unpublished report submitted to USDI National Park Service, Mojave Desert Network Inventory and Monitoring Program. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, CA. [http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/units/MOJN/rpts_pubs/rpts_pubs_main.cfm]
Related Concept Name: Distichlis spicata Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Buck-Diaz, J., S. Batiuk, and J. M. Evens. 2012. Vegetation alliances and associations of the Great Valley ecoregion, California. California Native Society, Sacramento, CA. [http://cnps.org/cnps/vegetation/pdf/great_valley_eco-vegclass2012.pdf]
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Sikes, K. G., D. Rodriguez, T. Keeler-Wolf, G. Kittel, J. Curtis, C. Curley, and J. Evens. 2016. Vegetation classification of Channel Islands National Park. Report to the National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.
Related Concept Name: Distichlis spicata Habitat Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.
Related Concept Name: Distichlis spicata Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.
Related Concept Name: Distichlis spicata Vegetation Zone I
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Ralston, G. L. 1969. Plant zonation on dune sands of Washoe Lake, Washoe County, Nevada. Unpublished thesis, University of Nevada, Reno.
Related Concept Name: Distichlis spicata var. spicata
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Distichlis stricta Associations on Saline-Alkaline Soils
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Franklin, J. F., and C. T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington. General Technical Report PNW-8. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 417 pp.
Related Concept Name: Distichlis stricta Habitat Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Daubenmire, R. F. 1970. Steppe vegetation of Washington. Washington State University Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 62. 131 pp.
Related Concept Name: Distichlis Meadow
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Graham, E. H. 1937. Botanical studies in the Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 26:28-432.
Related Concept Name: Inland Saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) Dominance Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Jones, G. P., and G. M. Walford. 1995. Major riparian vegetation types of eastern Wyoming. Submitted to Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, Water Quality Division. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, Laramie, WY. 245 pp.
Related Concept Name: Inland Saltgrass Monotype CT
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Muldavin, E., P. Durkin, M. Bradley, M. Stuever, and P. Mehlhop. 2000a. Handbook of wetland vegetation communities of New Mexico. Volumn I: Classification and community descriptions. Final report to the New Mexico Environment Department and the Environmental Protection Agency prepared by the New Mexico Natural Heritage Program, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
Related Concept Name: Inland saltgrass (Distichlis spicata var. spicata) Plant Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, and J. Sanderson. 1999a. A classification of the riparian plant associations of the Rio Grande and Closed Basin watersheds, Colorado. Unpublished report prepared by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.
Related Concept Name: Saltgrass Series
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Sawyer, J. O., and T. Keeler-Wolf. 1995. A manual of California vegetation. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 471 pp.
Related Concept Name: Saltgrass Zone (4)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Brotherson, J. D. 1987. Plant community zonation in response to soil gradients in a saline meadow near Utah Lake, Utah County, Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 47(2):322-333.
Related Concept Name: The Salt-grass Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Vestal, A. G. 1914. Prairie vegetation of a mountain-front area in Colorado. Botanical Gazette 58(5):377-400.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES302.017 Chihuahuan Mixed Salt Desert Scrub
CES302.748 North American Warm Desert Lower Montane Riparian Woodland and Shrubland
CES302.749 Sonora-Mojave Mixed Salt Desert Scrub
CES303.669 Western Great Plains Saline Depression Wetland
CES304.780 Inter-Mountain Basins Greasewood Flat
CES304.781 Inter-Mountain Basins Wash
CES304.786 Inter-Mountain Basins Playa
CES304.998 Inter-Mountain Basins Alkaline Closed Depression
CES306.821 Rocky Mountain Lower Montane-Foothill Riparian Woodland and Shrubland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G5 (01Feb1996)
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY
Canadian Province Distribution: SK
Global Distribution: Canada, Mexicopotentially occurs, United States
Global Range: This grassland association occurs in low areas in semi-arid and arid western North America from southern Saskatchewan, Canada, west to Washington and south to Arizona, Utah, California, New Mexico, and possibly northern Mexico.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Mediterranean Division
Province Name: California Coastal Chaparral Forest and Shrub Province
Province Code: 261 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern California Coast Section
Section Code: 261B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Tropical/Subtropical Steppe Division
Province Name: Colorado Plateau Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 313 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Painted Desert Section
Section Code: 313D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Southwest Plateau and Plains Dry Steppe and Shrub Province
Province Code: 315 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Pecos Valley Section
Section Code: 315A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Tropical/Subtropical Desert Division
Province Name: Chihuahuan Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 321 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Basin and Range Section
Section Code: 321A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: American Semi-Desert and Desert Province
Province Code: 322 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Mojave Desert Section
Section Code: 322A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Sonoran Desert Section
Section Code: 322B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Colorado Desert Section
Section Code: 322C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Division
Province Name: Great Plains-Palouse Dry Steppe Province
Province Code: 331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Palouse Prairie Section
Section Code: 331A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern High Plains Section
Section Code: 331B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central High Tablelands Section
Section Code: 331C Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Northwestern Glaciated Plains Section
Section Code: 331D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northwestern Great Plains Section
Section Code: 331F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Powder River Basin Section
Section Code: 331G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central High Plains Section
Section Code: 331H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Arkansas Tablelands Section
Section Code: 331I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Division
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert and Desert Province
Province Code: 341 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Canyon Lands Section
Section Code: 341B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Uinta Basin Section
Section Code: 341C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Mono Section
Section Code: 341D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lahontan Basin Section
Section Code: 341E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 342 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bighorn Basin Section
Section Code: 342A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northwestern Basin and Range Section
Section Code: 342B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Owyhee Uplands Section
Section Code: 342C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Basin and Hills Section
Section Code: 342F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Greater Green River Basin Section
Section Code: 342G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: High Lava Plains Section
Section Code: 342H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Columbia Basin Section
Section Code: 342I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Mediterranean Regime Mountains
Province Name: California Coastal Range Open Woodland - Shrub - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M262 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central California Coast Ranges Section
Section Code: M262A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Uinta Mountains Section
Section Code: M331E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Parks and Ranges Section
Section Code: M331F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Beaverhead Mountains Section
Section Code: M332E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Regime Mountains
Province Name: Nevada-Utah Mountains Semi-Desert - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M341 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Tavaputs Plateau Section
Section Code: M341B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Cover is sparse to dense and is dominated by Distichlis spicata, occurring in nearly pure stands. Stands have higher diversity and cover during wet years and near boundaries with other vegetation types. Higher soil salinity favors Distichlis spicata over less salt-tolerant species. However, very high salinity will dwarf the Distichlis spicata and reduce cover. Generally, vegetation height and cover and species diversity tend to vary inversely with salinity on the plains but may increase on very saline sites (Brotherson 1987). Minor cover of associated graminoids may include Muhlenbergia asperifolia, Hordeum jubatum, Pascopyrum smithii, Sporobolus airoides, Carex filifolia, Eleocharis palustris, Puccinellia nuttalliana, and Juncus balticus. Associated forbs, such as Iva axillaris, Helianthus spp. and Asteraceae spp. (from lower salinity sites), Chenopodium sp., Lappula occidentalis, Rumex hymenosepalus, Salicornia rubra, Triglochin maritima, and Suaeda spp., may also be present. Shrubs are rare, but scattered Atriplex canescens, Atriplex confertifolia, Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Ericameria nauseosa, Gutierrezia sarothrae, and Sarcobatus vermiculatus may be present. Introduced species are present in some stands and may include Bromus tectorum, Elymus repens, Lepidium latifolium, Lepidium perfoliatum, Bassia scoparia (= Kochia scoparia), and occasionally Tamarix spp.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Bassia scoparia G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Cleome multicaulis G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lepidium latifolium G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lepidium perfoliatum G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Bromus tectorum G5 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Distichlis spicata G5 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Elymus repens G5 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Cleome multicaulis
  (Many-stemmed Spider-flower)
G2G3  

Vegetation Structure
Stratum Growth Form
Height of Stratum (m)
Cover
Class
%
Min
Cover %
Max
Cover %
Herb (field) Flowering forb
 
 
0
25
Herb (field) Graminoid
<0.5 m
 
20
99


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: These grasslands occur in semi-arid and arid western North America on saline and alkaline soils from southern Saskatchewan, Canada, to Mexico. Elevation ranges from 1000-2300 m (3280-7545 feet). Stands are found in lowland habitats such as playas, swales, floodplains, and terraces along washes that are typically intermittently or seasonally flooded. The flooding is usually the result of highly localized thunderstorms or winter rains which can flood one basin and leave the next dry. However, this association may also occur in other flood regimes (temporarily and semipermanently). Soil texture ranges from clay loam, silty loam, to sandy clay (Johnston 1987). These soils are often deep, saline and alkaline. They generally have an impermeable layer and therefore are poorly drained. When the soil is dry, the surface usually has salt accumulations. Salinity is likely more important than flooding as an environmental factor.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: The intermittent flooding regime combined with the high evaporation rate in these dry climates causes accumulations of soluble salts in the soil. Total vegetation cover (density and height), species composition, and soil salinity depend on the amount and timing of precipitation and flooding. Growth-inhibiting salt concentrations are diluted when the soil is saturated, allowing the growth of less salt-tolerant species and more robust growth of Distichlis spicata. As the saturated soils dry, the salt concentrates until it precipitates on the soil surface (Dodd and Coupland 1966, Ungar 1968). This osmotic stress of growing in alkaline and saline soils is compensated by the accumulation of proline by some halophytic species including Distichlis spicata. This aids the plants' water uptake by increasing the osmotic potential of the plant (Shupe et al. 1986). Vegetation forms zones at some saline sites, where species abundance is stratified by salt tolerance (Ungar et al. 1969, Shupe et al. 1986). In playas, the soil salinity at field capacity generally increases from the edge to the center allowing for several different vegetation stands to co-occur (Ungar 1967, 1970, Ungar et al. 1969). Microtopography can also affect vegetation structure. Where soil accumulates to form hummocks, less salt- and alkali-tolerant plants can occur (Ungar 1972, Johnston 1987).

Brotherson (1987) studied species in a saline meadow adjacent to the Great Salt Lake in Utah and found 5 vegetation zones all with Distichlis spicata present. The meadow sloped down and away from the shoreline for the first 4 zones, then up for the last. Soil pH and soluble salt levels followed the slope pattern with the lowest zone (4) having lower pH and salt concentrations and the highest cover of Distichlis spicata (99%) almost exclusively. The other higher salt zones were codominated by other species such as Suaeda calceoliformis, Puccinellia nuttalliana, Salicornia rubra, Triglochin maritima, Glaux maritima, or Eleocharis palustris. Zone 5 was dominated by Eleocharis palustris and had additional moisture from a nearby seep. The salts were concentrated in the higher elevation zones because of evaporation of the salt-laden water that was leached from the lower lying areas.

The warm-season grass Distichlis spicata is rhizomatous, tolerant of moderate grazing, and its roots resist trampling. Although relatively unpalatable, it can provide valuable winter forage for livestock, if needed. When grazed, Distichlis spicata generally increases because of reduced competition from other less grazing-tolerant species. If grazed heavily, Distichlis spicata will decline and may be replaced by less desirable warm-season grasses such as tumblegrass, Schedonnardus paniculatus, or Hordeum jubatum (Costello 1944b, Jones and Walford 1995). Weeds are generally not a problem because few grow well in saline soils. However, severely disturbed sites are susceptible to invasion by introduced species such as Bromus tectorum, Lepidium latifolium, Lepidium perfoliatum, and Bassia hyssopifolia (Franklin and Dyrness 1973).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): K.A. Schulz
Element Description Edition Date: 14Jul2016
Element Description Author(s): K.A. Schulz, J. Coles, G. Kittel and J. Evens
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Feb1996

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Baker, W. L. 1984a. A preliminary classification of the natural vegetation of Colorado. Great Basin Naturalist 44(4):647-676.

  • Beatley, J. C. 1976. Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and central-southern Nevada: Ecological and geographic distributions. Technical Information Center, Energy Research and Development Administration. TID-26881. Prepared for Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. 297 pp.

  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • Brotherson, J. D. 1987. Plant community zonation in response to soil gradients in a saline meadow near Utah Lake, Utah County, Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 47(2):322-333.

  • Buck-Diaz, J., S. Batiuk, and J. M. Evens. 2012. Vegetation alliances and associations of the Great Valley ecoregion, California. California Native Society, Sacramento, CA. [http://cnps.org/cnps/vegetation/pdf/great_valley_eco-vegclass2012.pdf]

  • Bunin, J. E. 1985. Vegetation of the City of Boulder, Colorado open space lands. Report prepared for the City of Boulder, Real Estate/Open Space, Boulder, CO. 114 pp.

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  • Dodd, J. D., and R. T. Coupland. 1966. Vegetation of saline areas in Saskatchewan. Ecology 47(6):958-968.

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  • Hansen, P., K. Boggs, and R. Pfister. 1991. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites in Montana. Unpublished draft version prepared for Montana Riparian Association, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula. 478 pp.

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