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Quercus rubra - Quercus alba - Carya glabra / Geranium maculatum Forest
Translated Name: Northern Red Oak - White Oak - Pignut Hickory / Spotted Geranium Forest
Common Name: Piedmont Submesic Oak - Hickory Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007237
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This forest occupies submesic to mesic southern Piedmont sites, often on mid to lower slopes with northerly to easterly aspects. Overstory dominance is often shared among Quercus rubra, Quercus alba, and Carya spp., with Liriodendron tulipifera frequently occupying canopy gaps. The understory contains Cornus florida, Cercis canadensis, Acer rubrum, Calycanthus floridus, and Fraxinus americana. Other herbaceous associates include Sanguinaria canadensis, Polystichum acrostichoides, Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum, Desmodium nudiflorum, and Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa). Somewhat drier and more acidic Piedmont stands and/or those with less Quercus rubra are generally accommodated by Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya alba / Vaccinium stamineum / Desmodium nudiflorum Piedmont Forest (CEGL008475).



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This type was originally described from analyzed plots of old-growth stands sampled in the Piedmont of South Carolina (Jones 1988a, 1988b), but it is expected to occur in a variety of late-successional stands in this area and may occur in adjacent states. This association needs clarification and expansion, and subsequent range assessment. In particular, compare to Quercus alba - Carya alba / Euonymus americanus / Hexastylis arifolia Forest (CEGL006227) and Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya alba / Vaccinium stamineum / Desmodium nudiflorum Piedmont Forest (CEGL008475), a less mesic type. Related vegetation in the Piedmont of Virginia is treated as Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya alba / Vaccinium stamineum / Desmodium nudiflorum Piedmont Forest (CEGL008475) or Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya (ovata, carolinae-septentrionalis) / Cercis canadensis Forest (CEGL007232), depending on soil chemistry.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Southern & South-Central Oak - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Piedmont-Central Atlantic Coastal Plain Oak Forest
Alliance Piedmont Oak - Hickory Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003949 Quercus rubra / Magnolia tripetala - Cercis canadensis / Actaea racemosa - Tiarella cordifolia Forest
CEGL004542 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus - Tilia americana var. caroliniana / Ostrya virginiana Forest
CEGL006227 Quercus alba - Carya alba / Euonymus americanus / Hexastylis arifolia Forest
CEGL007232 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya (ovata, carolinae-septentrionalis) / Cercis canadensis Forest
CEGL008475 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya alba / Vaccinium stamineum / Desmodium nudiflorum Piedmont Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Northern red oak - white oak - wild geranium (Quercus rubra - Quercus alba - Geranium maculatum) community type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Jones, S. M. 1988a. Old-growth forests within the Piedmont of South Carolina. Natural Areas Journal 8:31-37.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Jones, S. M. 1988b. Old-growth, steady state forests within the Piedmont of South Carolina. Ph.D. dissertation, Clemson University, Clemson, SC. 94 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.342 Southern Piedmont Mesic Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4Q (15Feb2007)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This rank has had a "Q" placed on it in the past and this is now (February 2007) being restored due to questions about its distinctiveness. It may be "an anachronism based on a broader interpretation that we have now rejected" (M. Schafale pers. comm.). This is presumably not a rare forest type, although most examples have been impacted by removal of the more valuable timber species (e.g., Quercus alba), and remaining ones on private land are highly vulnerable to canopy removal and conversion to other forest types or other land uses.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GA, NCpotentially occurs, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is found in the Piedmont of Georgia and South Carolina. It overlaps in concept with other associations in North Carolina, so its attribution there is in question. As a result, the complete range of this association is yet to be assessed.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: In South Carolina, overstory dominance in stands is often shared among Quercus rubra, Quercus alba, and Carya glabra, with Liriodendron tulipifera frequently occupying canopy gaps (Jones 1988a). In addition, stands may include Pinus echinata, Pinus taeda, Quercus falcata, Quercus pagoda, Juglans nigra, and other species (NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern U.S. unpubl. data). The understory contains Cercis canadensis, Calycanthus floridus, and Fraxinus americana in canopy gaps. Woody vines include Vitis rotundifolia. Herbaceous associates include Sanguinaria canadensis, Polystichum acrostichoides, Maianthemum racemosum, Polygonatum biflorum, Erythronium umbilicatum, Geranium maculatum, Hexastylis arifolia, Mitchella repens, Podophyllum peltatum, Thalictrum thalictroides, Trillium cuneatum, Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Antennaria plantaginifolia, Aristolochia serpentaria, Carex spp., Desmodium nudiflorum, Dichanthelium spp., Oxalis violacea, Viola spp., and Zephyranthes atamasca. The exotic grass Microstegium vimineum may also infest stands of this association.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Carya glabra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus alba G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus rubra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Geranium maculatum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Microstegium vimineum G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This forest occupies submesic to mesic southern Piedmont sites, often on mid to lower slopes with northerly to easterly aspects.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D.J. Allard, mod. S. Landaal and M. Pyne
Element Description Edition Date: 15Feb2007
Element Description Author(s): R.E. Evans and G.P. Fleming
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Feb2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Jones, S. M. 1988a. Old-growth forests within the Piedmont of South Carolina. Natural Areas Journal 8:31-37.

  • Jones, S. M. 1988b. Old-growth, steady state forests within the Piedmont of South Carolina. Ph.D. dissertation, Clemson University, Clemson, SC. 94 pp.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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