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Typha angustifolia - Hibiscus moscheutos Salt Marsh
Translated Name: Narrowleaf Cattail - Crimson-eyed Rosemallow Salt Marsh
Common Name: Cattail Brackish Tidal Salt Marsh
Unique Identifier: CEGL004201
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community is a brackish tidal marsh of the northern to central Atlantic Coast, occurring along the margin of tidal rivers and at the upper margins of some high salt marshes and coastal salt ponds where water salinity ranges from 0.5-18.0 ppt. Brackish marshes are most extensive on large tidal rivers, but smaller marshes of this alliance also occur at the upper limits of larger tidal creeks. The vegetation of this tall grassland is a mixture of freshwater and saltmarsh species dominated by Typha angustifolia. Phragmites australis and/or Typha latifolia can be codominant. The Phragmites australis component is the native strain. Common associates include Hibiscus moscheutos, Schoenoplectus pungens, Impatiens capensis, Amaranthus cannabinus, Peltandra virginica, Pontederia cordata, and Bidens spp., plus Spartina cynosuroides in the south. Other infrequent associates include Mikania scandens, Polygonum punctatum, Pluchea odorata, Eleocharis spp., and Schoenoplectus robustus, plus Schoenoplectus americanus farther south. Species from adjacent high salt marsh may also be present. Substrate is muck or peat, and there is often an accumulation of Typha litter.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: A non-tidal barrier wetland documented at the Cove Point Wetland, Calvert County, Maryland (Steury 1999), appears to fit this concept.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.5 - Salt Marsh
Division 2.C.5.Nb - North American Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Salt Marsh
Macrogroup North American Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Salt Marsh
Group Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Brackish Salt Marsh
Alliance Cordgrass Brackish Tidal Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL008456 Typha domingensis Tidal Marsh



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Narrowleaf cattail - Rosemallow (Typha angustifolia - Hibiscus moscheutos) community Equivalent Certain Metzler and Barrett 2006
Delaware Cattail Brackish Tidal Marsh Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maine Brackish Tidal Marsh Broader   Gawler 2002
Maryland Typha angustifolia - Hibiscus moscheutos Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011
Massachusetts Brackish Tidal Marsh Broader   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Hampshire Brackish Marsh Broader   Sperduto 2000
New Jersey Typha angustifolia - Hibiscus moscheutos Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Breden et al. 2001
New York Brackish tidal marsh Broader   Edinger et al. 2002
North Carolina Tidal Freshwater Marsh (Cattail Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Hibiscus marsh
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Cahoon, D. R., and J. C. Stevenson. 1986. Production, predation, and decomposition in a low-salinity Hibiscus marsh. Ecology 67:1341-1350.
Related Concept Name: Typha (angustifolia, latifolia) - Hibiscus moscheutos Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W. 2001. Herbaceous tidal wetland communities of Maryland's eastern shore: Identification, assessment and monitoring. Report submitted to the U.S. EPA (Clean Water Act 1998 State Wetlands Protection Development Grant Program). Biodiversity Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Division. 30 June 2001. [U.S. EPA Reference Wetland Natural communities of Maryland's Herbaceous Tidal Wetlands Grant #CD993724].
Related Concept Name: Typha angustifolia - Hibiscus moscheutos Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Bowman, P. 2000. Draft classification for Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Typha angustifolia - Hibiscus moscheutos community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Metzler, K. J., and J. P. Barrett. 2001. Vegetation classification for Connecticut. Draft 5/21/2001. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.
Related Concept Name: Typha angustifolia - Hibiscus palustris community
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Metzler, K. J., and J. Barrett. 1992. Connecticut community classification. Unpublished draft. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.
Related Concept Name: Typha angustifolia Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Coulling, P. P. 2002. A preliminary classification of tidal marsh, shrub swamp, and hardwood swamp vegetation and assorted non-tidal, chiefly non-maritime, herbaceous wetland communities of the Virginia Coastal Plain. October 2002. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-18. 30 pp.
Related Concept Name: Typha angustifolia community
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Good, R. E., and N. F. Good. 1975b. Vegetation and production of the Woodbury Creek and Hessian Run freshwater tidal marshes. Bartonia 43:38-45.
Related Concept Name: Typha angustifolia type
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Ferren, W. R., Jr., R. E. Good, R. Walker, and J. Arsenault. 1981. Vegetation and flora of Hog Island, a brackish wetland in the Mullica River, New Jersey. Bartonia 48:1-10.
Related Concept Name: Typha association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Shreve, F., M. A. Chrysler, F. H. Blodgett, and F. W. Besley. 1910. The plant life of Maryland. Maryland Weather Service. Special Publication, Volume III. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD. 533 pp.
Related Concept Name: Brackish Tidal Marsh
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Enser, R. 1999. Natural communities of Rhode Island. Unpublished draft, December 1999. 22 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.
Related Concept Name: Brackish marsh
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Sperduto, D. 1994. A classification of the natural communities of New Hampshire. April 1994 approximation. Unpublished document. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory, Department of Resources and Economic Development, Concord, NH. 45 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Brackish tidal marsh
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Reschke, C. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Brackish tidal marsh community
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: MNAP [Maine Natural Areas Program]. 1991. Natural landscapes of Maine: Classification of ecosystems and natural communities. Maine Natural Areas Program, Maine Department of Conservation, Natural Resources Information and Mapping Center, Augusta, ME. 77 pp.
Related Concept Name: Brackish tidal marsh complex
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.
Related Concept Name: Cattail Community Type
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Odum, W. E., T. J. Smith, III, J. K. Hoover, and C. C. McIvor. 1984. The ecology of tidal freshwater marshes of the United States east coast: A community profile. FWS/OBS-83/17. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, DC. 176 pp.
Related Concept Name: Fresh-brackish marsh
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Klotz, L. H. 1986. The vascular flora of Wallops Island and Wallops Mainland, Virginia. Castanea 51:306-326.
Related Concept Name: Narrowleaf cattail type
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: McCormick, J., and T. Ashbaugh. 1972. Vegetation of a section of Oldmans Creek Tidal Marsh and related areas in Salem and Gloucester counties, New Jersey. Bulletin of the New Jersey Academy of Science 17:31-37.
Related Concept Name: Tidal Freshwater Marsh
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Tidal Freshwater Marsh (Narrowleaf Cattail Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: Tidal Oligohaline Marsh
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Transitional fresh marsh
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Hill, S. R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea 5:265-305.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.579 Acadian Estuary Marsh
CES203.259 Atlantic Coastal Plain Embayed Region Tidal Freshwater Marsh
CES203.892 Atlantic Coastal Plain Northern Salt Pond Marsh
CES203.894 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Brackish Tidal Marsh


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4G5 (19Jan2006)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This common small-patch community occurs in the estuarine areas of up to 13 northeastern states, several of which rank this vegetation as S4. It is threatened by pollution and by encroachment of Phragmites australis.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NC, NH, NJ, NY, RI, SCpotentially occurs, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association occurs along the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Virginia and possibly to South Carolina.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Fundy Coastal and Interior Section
Section Code: 212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation of this tall grassland is a mixture of freshwater and saltmarsh species dominated by Typha angustifolia. Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, Spartina cynosuroides, or Schoenoplectus pungens can codominate. The Phragmites australis component is the native strain (Saltonstall 2002). Common associates include Hibiscus moscheutos, Schoenoplectus pungens, Impatiens capensis, Amaranthus cannabinus, Peltandra virginica, Pontederia cordata, and Bidens spp., plus Spartina cynosuroides in the south. Other infrequent associates include Mikania scandens, Pluchea odorata, Polygonum punctatum, Eleocharis spp., and Schoenoplectus robustus, plus Schoenoplectus americanus farther south. Species from adjacent high salt marsh may also be present.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Hibiscus moscheutos G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Pontederia cordata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Schoenoplectus pungens G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Typha angustifolia G4 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association occurs in oligohaline to mesohaline areas of tidal marshes (0.5-18 ppt). In estuarine systems, it can occur in the uppermost zone of brackish marshes where there is freshwater influence; it receives diurnal tidal flooding of brackish water. In salt marshes behind barrier beaches it can occur in the upper reaches of larger tidal creeks within brackish areas and also at the upland border where there is significant freshwater input from the adjacent upland; here it receives irregular tidal flooding only during high spring tides. Substrate is muck or peat, and there is often an accumulation of Typha litter.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Brackish marsh complexes commonly occur as mosaics of patches dominated by a single graminoid species. Patches dominated by Typha angustifolia tend to occur where there is more freshwater influence near the upper reaches of estuaries or at the upland border of high salt marshes where there is freshwater input from the surrounding upland. As the marsh becomes more brackish, Schoenoplectus pungens or Spartina patens can become dominant. As the marsh becomes less brackish, Peltandra virginica, Pontederia cordata, Acorus calamus, Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani, and Zizania aquatica can become more prevalent. The pattern of alternating dominance between Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis that can occur in these environmental settings may reflect disturbance history of the site and of the surrounding watershed.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): L.A. Sneddon, mod. S.L. Neid
Element Description Edition Date: 14Dec2006
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Jan2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
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  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

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  • Coulling, P. P. 2002. A preliminary classification of tidal marsh, shrub swamp, and hardwood swamp vegetation and assorted non-tidal, chiefly non-maritime, herbaceous wetland communities of the Virginia Coastal Plain. October 2002. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-18. 30 pp.

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http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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Data last updated: November 2016