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Taxodium distichum / Lemna minor Floodplain Forest
Translated Name: Bald-cypress / Common Duckweed Floodplain Forest
Common Name: Bald-cypress Floodplain Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL002420
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This bald-cypress swamp is found in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains of the United States in a variety of ecological settings. Examples may occur in oxbow lakes and ponds, and along the banks of rivers and lakes in saturated or flooded soils. This type is characterized by a monospecific canopy of straight, tall individuals of Taxodium distichum above shallow to deep water (depths ranging from soil saturation to approximately 6 m) during all or most of the year. Flooding is seasonal, occurring during winter and spring. Stands have a sparse to moderate subcanopy and depauperate shrub and herb layers. The trunks of the canopy trees typically form swelled buttresses. Canopy cover is variable, from at or near 100% to less than 60% in some examples. More open examples of this type tend to occur in deeper water. In the deepest water situations scattered trees grow over an open water surface covered by floating and submersed aquatic plants. Taxodium distichum regeneration is absent in areas of permanent inundation, as seed germination does not occur in standing water. The subcanopy and herbaceous layers are dependent upon timing, duration, and depth of flooding. Cephalanthus occidentalis and Rosa palustris may be common shrubs in some examples of this community, while Fraxinus caroliniana (in its range) and Acer rubrum var. drummondii are common in the subcanopy. Shallow water emergents, floating-leaved aquatics, such as Azolla caroliniana, Brasenia schreberi, Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Limnobium spongia, Spirodela punctata, Wolffia columbiana, Lemna spp. Nymphaea spp., and submerged hydrophytes, such as Ceratophyllum demersum, Egeria densa, Myriophyllum aquaticum, and Potamogeton nodosus, are common in permanent water zones throughout the range of Taxodium distichum swamps. This community is differentiated from other swamp forests by lacking Nyssa spp. as other than occasional individuals. This is the only community type currently defined outside Florida with Taxodium distichum as the sole dominant.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This is the only community type currently defined outside Florida with Taxodium distichum as the sole dominant. Stands are possible in suitable habitat anywhere within the range of Taxodium distichum; however, it is more commonly recognized outside of, or near the edge of, the range of Nyssa aquatica which otherwise is frequently codominant with Taxodium distichum. Classification can become difficult where excessive logging has removed most of the mature bald-cypress. Logging, and possibly alteration of hydrologic regimes, may create an unnaturally open canopy more typical of woodland communities. Water tupelo regeneration is prevalent at these disturbed sites, often replacing bald-cypress as the dominant plant species. Unless canopy composition is severely altered, this criterion is currently used to establish species dominance. Where logging causes classification difficulties, adjacent undisturbed occurrences may be used to ascertain pre-disturbance dominance.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Floodplain Forest
Group Bald-cypress - Tupelo Floodplain Forest
Alliance Southern Bald-cypress - Tupelo Floodplain Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002419 Nyssa aquatica Swamp Forest
CEGL002421 Taxodium distichum - (Nyssa aquatica) / Forestiera acuminata - Planera aquatica Floodplain Forest
CEGL004046 Taxodium distichum East Gulf Coastal Plain Pondshore Swamp Woodland
CEGL004079 Taxodium distichum / Cephalanthus occidentalis / Boehmeria cylindrica - Ceratophyllum muricatum Maritime Swamp Forest
CEGL004465 Taxodium distichum - Taxodium ascendens / Panicum hemitomon - Sclerolepis uniflora Swamp Woodland
CEGL004466 Taxodium distichum - Taxodium ascendens / Panicum hemitomon Swamp Woodland
CEGL004653 Taxodium distichum / Cephalanthus occidentalis / Juncus repens Swamp Woodland
CEGL005201 Taxodium distichum - Populus heterophylla Floodplain Forest
CEGL007422 Taxodium distichum - Nyssa aquatica - Acer rubrum / Itea virginica Floodplain Forest
CEGL007431 Taxodium distichum - Nyssa aquatica / Fraxinus caroliniana Floodplain Forest
CEGL007909 Taxodium distichum / Planera aquatica - Forestiera acuminata Lakeshore Swamp Woodland
CEGL008497 Taxodium distichum West Gulf Coastal Plain Lakeshore Swamp Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Taxodium distichum / Lemna minor Forest Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
Arkansas Cypress Swamp Undetermined   Foti 1994
Florida Floodplain swamp Broader   FNAI 1997
Illinois Swamp Broader   White and Madany 1978
Indiana Wetland - Swamp Forest Broader   Homoya et al. 1988
Kentucky Cypress (Tupelo) Swamp Broader   Evans 1991
Louisiana Baldcypress Swamp Intersects   Smith 1996
Louisiana Baldcypress-Tupelo Swamp Intersects   Smith 1996
Mississippi Bald Cypress Swamp Undetermined   Wieland 1994
Missouri Swamp Broader   Nelson 1985
North Carolina Coastal Plain Semipermanent Impoundment (Cypress-Gum Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012
Oklahoma Taxodium distichum / Lemna minor Forest Equivalent Certain Hoagland 2000
South Carolina Bald cypress - tupelo gum swamp Broader   Nelson 1986
Tennessee Taxodium distichum / Lemna minor Forest Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data
Texas Taxodium distichum/Lemna minor series Equivalent Certain TNHS unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Taxodium - Nyssa aquatica / Rosa palustris community
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Voigt, J. W., and R. H. Mohlenbrock. 1964. Plant communities of southern Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale. 202 pp.
Related Concept Name: Taxodium distichum - Nyssa aquatica swamp
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Robertson, P. A., M. D. MacKenzie, and L. F. Elliott. 1984. Gradient analysis and classification of the woody vegetation for four sites in southern Illinois and adjacent Missouri. Vegetatio 58:87-104.
Related Concept Name: Bald Cypress Swamp
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Oberholster, C. 1993. Preliminary list of natural communities of Alabama. Unpublished document. Alabama Department Conservation and Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Section, Montgomery, AL. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: Bald-cypress, closed canopied type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Van Kley, J. E., and D. N. Hine. 1998. The wetland vegetation of Caddo Lake. Texas Journal of Science 50(4):267-290.
Related Concept Name: Baldcypress / Ceratophyllum Semi-Permanently Flooded Swamps
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Turner, R. L., J. E. Van Kley, L. S. Smith, and R. E. Evans. 1999. Ecological classification system for the national forests and adjacent areas of the West Gulf Coastal Plain. The Nature Conservancy, Nacogdoches, TX. 95 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Baldcypress-Water Tupelo Series
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Diamond, D. D. 1993. Classification of the plant communities of Texas (series level). Unpublished document. Texas Natural Heritage Program, Austin. 25 pp.
Related Concept Name: Baldcypress: 101
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: Blackwater Stream Floodplain Forest
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.
Related Concept Name: Brownwater Stream Floodplain Forest
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.
Related Concept Name: Closed-canopy Cypress Swamps & Open (Deep Water) Cypress Swamps
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1995a. A classification and description of plant communities in southern Illinois. Report by the Southern Illinois Field Office, Ullin, IL, and the Midwest Regional Office, Minneapolis, MN.
Related Concept Name: Cypress (Tupelo) Swamp
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Evans, M. 1991. Kentucky ecological communities. Draft report to the Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission. 19 pp.
Related Concept Name: Cypress Swamp
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Smith, L. M., compiler. 1996a. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 2 pp.
Related Concept Name: Cypress--Gum Swamp (Blackwater Subtype)
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Cypress--Gum Swamp (Brownwater Subtype)
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Cypress-Tupelo Swamp
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Smith, L. M., compiler. 1996a. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 2 pp.
Related Concept Name: Eastern Broadleaf and Needleleaf Forests: 113: Southern Floodplain Forest (Quercus-Nyssa-Taxodium)
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Küchler, A. W. 1964. Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States. American Geographic Society Special Publication 36. New York, NY. 116 pp.
Related Concept Name: IIA4a. Bald Cypress Swamp
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Mesotrophic Semipermanently Flooded Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Rawinski, T. J. 1992. A classification of Virginia's indigenous biotic communities: Vegetated terrestrial, palustrine, and estuarine community classes. Unpublished document. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report No. 92-21. Richmond, VA. 25 pp.
Related Concept Name: P1B3dI1a. Taxodium distichum
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Foti, T., M. Blaney, X. Li, and K. G. Smith. 1994. A classification system for the natural vegetation of Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science 48:50-53.
Related Concept Name: Palustrine Taxodium distichum Series CP, MAP
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Pyne, M. 1994. Tennessee natural communities. Unpublished document. Tennessee Department of Conservation, Ecology Service Division, Nashville. 7 pp.
Related Concept Name: Palustrine: Forested Wetland: Riparian
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1985. Global Vertebrate Characterization Abstract Habitats. Unpublished document. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA.
Related Concept Name: Palustrine: Palustrine Forested Wetland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E. T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, DC. 103 pp.
Related Concept Name: UNESCO FORMATION CODE: I.B.3e
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: UNESCO [United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization]. 1973. International classification and mapping of vegetation. Series 6, Ecology and Conservation. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Paris. 93 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.705 South-Central Interior Large Floodplain
CES203.065 Red River Large Floodplain Forest
CES203.066 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest
CES203.459 West Gulf Coastal Plain Near-Coast Large River Swamp
CES203.488 West Gulf Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest
CES203.489 East Gulf Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest
CES203.490 Mississippi River Bottomland Depression
CES203.493 Southern Coastal Plain Blackwater River Floodplain Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4G5 (19Sep2001)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, AR, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MO, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This bald-cypress swamp is found in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains of the United States. Stands are possible in suitable habitat anywhere within the range of Taxodium distichum, i.e., the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain from Virginia to southern Florida, the lower Gulf Coastal Plain to southeastern Texas, and the Mississippi River Alluvial Plain to southern Illinois. However, it is more commonly recognized outside of, or near the edge of, the range of Nyssa aquatica which otherwise is frequently codominant with Taxodium distichum. Such areas include southwestern Arkansas and northwestern Louisiana, southeastern Oklahoma, eastern Mississippi and adjacent Alabama, southern Indiana, peninsular Florida, northeastern Virginia, eastern Maryland and Delaware.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Ozark Highlands Section
Section Code: 222A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Upper Gulf Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 222C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Shawnee Hills Section
Section Code: 222D Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Central Till Plains, Oak-Hickory Section
Section Code: 222G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Coastal Plains, Western Section
Section Code: 231E Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Eastern Gulf Prairies and Marshes Section
Section Code: 231F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Western Gulf Section
Section Code: 232F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Lower Mississippi Riverine Forest Province
Province Code: 234 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Mississippi Alluvial Basin Section
Section Code: 234A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation is characterized by a monospecific canopy of straight, tall individuals of Taxodium distichum with a sparse to moderate subcanopy and depauperate shrub and herb layers. Trees are generally very tall and straight with their trunks forming swelled buttresses. Canopy cover is extremely variable, from densely closed forests to sparse canopies. Taxodium distichum regeneration is absent in areas of permanent inundation, as seed germination does not occur in standing water. The subcanopy and herbaceous layers are dependent upon timing, duration, and depth of flooding. Cephalanthus occidentalis and Rosa palustris are common shrubs in this community, while Fraxinus caroliniana (in its range) and Acer rubrum var. drummondii are common in the subcanopy. A common vine is Brunnichia ovata. Shallow water emergents, floating-leaved aquatics, such as Azolla caroliniana, Brasenia schreberi, Cabomba caroliniana, Limnobium spongia, Spirodela punctata, Wolffia columbiana, Lemna minor, Nymphaea spp., and submerged hydrophytes, such as Ceratophyllum demersum, are common in permanent water zones throughout the range of this type. In the southern part of the range (e.g., southern Alabama) Lemna minor is replaced by Lemna valdiviana. Other important aquatic species may include Ludwigia palustris, Ludwigia peploides, and Hydrolea uniflora. The most open-canopied examples, in deeper water, may support dense colonies of Nuphar advena, and often greater cover of Nelumbo lutea, Cabomba caroliniana, Ceratophyllum demersum, Egeria densa, and Wolffia columbiana (Van Kley and Hine 1998). Interestingly, cover of the epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides apparently peaks in more closed-canopied situations. Common herbaceous species from occurrences in southwestern Arkansas include Bidens discoidea, Carex lupulina, Carex glaucescens, Echinodorus cordifolius, Heliotropium indicum, Leersia oryzoides, Limnobium spongia, Lycopus rubellus, Polygonum hydropiperoides, Proserpinaca palustris, and Saururus cernuus (J. Campbell pers. comm. 1999, D. Zollner pers. comm. 1999, TNC 1995a). The exotic plant species Eichhornia crassipes may a problem.

Bald-cypress swamps are similar in species composition and physiognomy throughout their range. Water levels determine species composition, density, and regeneration. Sites exhibit pronounced variability in herbaceous growth, and many species are specially adapted to flooded conditions. Bald-cypress swamps exhibit shifts in vegetative dominance largely governed by water fluctuations, windthrows, beaver predation, senescence, and fire. Bald-cypress forest understory varies from sparse herbaceous growth to very dense and diverse herbaceous flora. Bald-cypress reaches its greatest size in areas of permanent inundation.


Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Taxodium distichum G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Acer rubrum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Carya aquatica G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Fraxinus caroliniana G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Fraxinus profunda G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Gleditsia aquatica G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Nyssa biflora G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Planera aquatica G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Salix nigra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Ilex amelanchier G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Cephalanthus occidentalis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Forestiera acuminata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Heteranthera multiflora G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Iris fulva G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Ranunculus laxicaulis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Dryopteris celsa G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex decomposita G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex oxylepis G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Dichanthelium commutatum G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Eichhornia crassipes G4 Aquatic herb Floating aquatic      
 
 
Lemna minor G4 Aquatic herb Floating aquatic    
 
 
Hottonia inflata G4 Aquatic herb Submerged aquatic      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Carex decomposita
  (Cypress-knee Sedge)
G3G4  
Ischnura gemina
  (San Francisco Forktail)
G2  

Vegetation Structure
Stratum Growth Form
Height of Stratum (m)
Cover
Class
%
Min
Cover %
Max
Cover %
Tree canopy Needle-leaved tree
 
 
 
 
Tree subcanopy Broad-leaved deciduous tree
 
 
 
 
Shrub/sapling (tall & short) Shrub
 
 
 
 
Floating aquatic Aquatic herb
 
 
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community occurs on a variety of inundated topographic habitats, including oxbow ponds, natural lakes, drowned floodplains, backwater sloughs, along river edges, and in various isolated depressions within the floodplain. It is more commonly associated with brownwater than blackwater rivers. The community usually is linear in outline as it occurs in river floodplains and oxbows. Occurrences generally are surrounded by bottomland hardwood communities. Bedrock is deeply buried Paleozoic rock and has little or no effect on plant communities. Unconsolidated alluvial sediments need further characterization. Soil types on which it is found are very poorly drained. This includes impounded water (e.g., abandoned millponds, beaver ponds) and other habitats with relatively stable water levels. Hydrologic regime is the most important environmental determinant of the distribution of this community. Sites experience frequent flooding to near permanent ponding. Soils are always saturated. Floodwater may be 3 m or more deep and may be stagnant or flow up to 7 km/hour (Eyre 1980). Taxodium distichum is adapted to surviving under prolonged flooding, although exposed unflooded soils are necessary for seedling establishment. Saturated soils, with standing water all or most of the year, select for plants which exhibit special adaptations for existence in an environment with limited oxygen and nutrient availability. Seasonal flood pulses deposit sediment which can, when excessive, cause plant stress and speed wetland succession. Prolonged inundation does not allow for bald-cypress regeneration within the swamp and restricts new growth to perimeter low-water zones. Bald-cypress also has minimal sprouting ability, erratic reproduction, and slow growth which makes it a poor competitor with Nyssa aquatica (Wharton et al. 1982).

In Illinois, bald-cypress swamps occur on nearly level, deep soils on broad flats and narrow depressions or sloughs in the floodplains of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. Soils are difficult to till and have silty clay surface and subsurface layers, high shrink-swell capacity, low organic matter, and slow permeability with ponding of water common. Bald-cypress swamps exhibit reduced soil chemistry while substrates are saturated.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Prolonged flooding (most pronounced during late winter and early spring) can cause even mature trees to die. Drought encourages woody and herbaceous regeneration, and the herbaceous layer can become very dense when substrates are available during dry periods. Excessive sedimentation can increase the rate of fill common to all wetlands. Beaver predation, windthrows, senescence, and fire are ongoing seasonal and cyclic occurrences which can dramatically affect community composition. Canopy cover is variable, from at or near 100% to less than 60% in some examples. More open examples of this type tend to occur in deeper water. In the deepest water situations scattered trees grow over an open water surface covered by floating and submersed aquatic plants (Van Kley and Hine 1998). Taxodium distichum regeneration is absent in areas of permanent inundation, as seed germination does not occur in standing water. The subcanopy and herbaceous layers are dependent upon timing, duration, and depth of flooding. Woody regeneration is completely dependent on periods of drawdown, which may result in dense stands of even-aged trees. Very old, mature trees are generally scattered throughout bald-cypress swamps among dominant, medium-aged trees. Swamps containing large numbers of mature trees exhibit numerous canopy openings due to senescence and windthrows. Old-growth bald-cypress are usually hollow with many snags and dead limbs. Regeneration in bald-cypress swamps does occur on the periphery where fluctuating water levels often leave moist soil areas ideal for seed germination. Seed dispersal is accomplished by floating on the water surface.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M. Guetersloh, mod. S. Landaal and D. Faber-Langendoen
Element Description Edition Date: 24Mar2000
Element Description Author(s): M. Guetersloh, S. Landaal and D. Faber-Langendoen
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Sep2001

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.

  • Applequist, M. B. 1959. A study of soil and site factors affecting the growth and development of swamp blackgum and tupelo gum stands in southeastern Georgia. D.F. dissertation, Duke University, Durham, NC. 180 pp.

  • Blair, W. F., and T. H. Hubbell. 1938. The biotic districts of Oklahoma. The American Midland Naturalist 20:425-454.

  • Bruner, W. E. 1931. The vegetation of Oklahoma. Ecological Monographs 1:99-188.

  • Burdant, C. L., Jr., E. S. Nixon, and R. L. Willett. 1977. Woody vegetation of an inland heronry in East Texas. Southwestern Naturalist 21:475-486.

  • Burns, R. M., and B. H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990a. Silvics of North America: Volume 1. Conifers. Agriculture Handbook 654. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 675 pp.

  • Campbell, Julian J. N. Personal communication. Kentucky Field Office, The Nature Conservancy.

  • Christensen, N. L. 1988. Vegetation of the southeastern Coastal Plain. Pages 317-363 in: M. G. Barbour and W. D. Billings, editors. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge University Press, New York.

  • Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E. T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, DC. 103 pp.

  • Dennis, J. V. 1988. The great cypress swamps. Louisiana State University Press. 142 pp.

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  • Duck, L. G., and J. B. Fletcher. 1945. A survey of the game and furbearing animals of Oklahoma; chapter 2, The game types of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Game and Fish Commission, Division of Wildlife Restoration and Research, Oklahoma City.

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  • FNAI [Florida Natural Areas Inventory]. 1992a. Natural communities. Unpublished document. The Nature Conservancy, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. 6 pp.

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  • Faircloth, W. 1971. The vascular flora of central south Georgia. University microfilms. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens.

  • Foti, T. 1994a. Natural communities of Arkansas (terrestrial and palustrine). Unpublished document. Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission, Little Rock. 2 pp.

  • Foti, T., M. Blaney, X. Li, and K. G. Smith. 1994. A classification system for the natural vegetation of Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science 48:50-53.

  • Foti, T., compiler. 1994b. Natural vegetation classification system of Arkansas, draft five. Unpublished document. Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission, Little Rock. 8 pp.

  • Hoagland, B. 2000. The vegetation of Oklahoma: A classification for landscape mapping and conservation planning. The Southwestern Naturalist 45(4):385-420.

  • Hoagland, B. W. 1997. Preliminary plant community classification for Oklahoma. Unpublished draft document, version 35629. University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma Natural Heritage Inventory, Norman. 47 pp.

  • Hoagland, B. W., L. R. Sorrels, and S. M. Glenn. 1996. Woody species composition of floodplain forests of the Little River, McCurtain and LeFlore counties, Oklahoma. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 76:23-26.

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  • Illinois Nature Preserve Commission. 1973. Comprehensive plan for the Illinois nature preserves system, part 2: The natural divisions of Illinois, J. E. Schwegman, principal author. 32 pp.

  • Klawitter, R. A. 1962. Sweetgum, swamp tupelo and water tupelo sites in a South Carolina bottomland forest. D.F. dissertation, Duke University, Durham, NC. 176 pp.

  • Küchler, A. W. 1964. Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States. American Geographic Society Special Publication 36. New York, NY. 116 pp.

  • LNHP [Louisiana Natural Heritage Program]. 2009. Natural communities of Louisiana. Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, Louisiana Department of Wildlife & Fisheries, Baton Rouge. 46 pp. [http://www.wlf.louisiana.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/page_wildlife/6776-Rare%20Natural%20Communities/LA_NAT_COM.pdf]

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