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Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana - Ulmus alata / Schizachyrium scoparium Woodland
Translated Name: Eastern Red-cedar - Winged Elm / Little Bluestem Woodland
Common Name: Southern Piedmont Basic Rocky Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL004443
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This woodland occurs on steep rock outcrops of mafic rock and calcareous mudstone in the North Carolina and southern Virginia Piedmont. The open canopy is dominated by Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana and Ulmus alata, with Acer rubrum var. rubrum and Pinus virginiana sharing dominance in those occurrences in which they are present. Oak species typically do not share dominance in this type. Other woody species include Chionanthus virginicus (= var. virginicus), Carya glabra, Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra var. rubra, Quercus prinus, Quercus nigra, Carya ovata, Carya pallida, Celtis occidentalis, Ostrya virginiana, Rhus copallinum, Vaccinium arboreum, Vaccinium pallidum, and Diospyros virginiana. The herbaceous stratum is usually dominated by Schizachyrium scoparium, although some of the Virginia stands are dominated by Carex pensylvanica and/or Danthonia spicata. Other common species in the herbaceous stratum include Asclepias verticillata, Symphyotrichum dumosum var. dumosum (= Aster dumosus var. dumosus), Asplenium platyneuron var. platyneuron, Bignonia capreolata, Campsis radicans, Cheilanthes lanosa, Cheilanthes tomentosa, Commelina erecta var. erecta, Danthonia sericea, Danthonia spicata, Dichanthelium depauperatum, Dichanthelium laxiflorum, Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon, Euphorbia corollata, Gamochaeta purpurea, Gelsemium sempervirens, Heuchera americana, Hypericum gentianoides, Hypericum hypericoides ssp. multicaule, Lespedeza virginica, Nuttallanthus canadensis, Oxalis dillenii, Packera spp., Pleopeltis polypodioides ssp. michauxiana (= Polypodium polypodioides var. michauxianum), Selaginella rupestris, Sedum glaucophyllum, Sorghastrum nutans, and Vitis rotundifolia.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Common name changed from Uwharrie Mountains Southern Piedmont Mafic Red-cedar Woodland. Nine Virginia plots that have consistently formed a discrete group in several regional classifications were assessed by Mike Schafale (pers. comm.) as being consistent with this association.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Southern & South-Central Oak - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Chinquapin Oak - Shumard Oak - Blue Ash Alkaline Forest & Woodland
Alliance Piedmont-Appalachian Ash - Hickory Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003982 Piedmont Mafic Cliff Sparse Vegetation
CEGL004910 Quercus prinus - Quercus stellata - Pinus echinata / Vaccinium pallidum / Schizachyrium scoparium Scrub
CEGL007045 Pinus echinata - Quercus velutina - Quercus marilandica / Piptochaetium avenaceum Ultramafic Woodland
CEGL008499 Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana - Celtis tenuifolia - Cercis canadensis / Sporobolus clandestinus - Danthonia sericea Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Piedmont Basic Glade (Typic Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Low-Elevation Basic Outcrop Barren
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Piedmont Mafic Cliff
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.328 Southern Piedmont Glade and Barrens


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2 (24Feb2010)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This eastern red-cedar-dominated woodland association is restricted to cliffs and other steep outcrops of mafic and calcareous sedimentary rock in the Piedmont of North Carolina and southern Virginia. Less than 20 sites are currently known, and the type has probably always been rare due to its restricted geographic distribution and high environmental specificity. Some examples are found on public lands in the Uwharrie National Forest of North Carolina and the Philpott Reservoir of Virginia.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NC, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This woodland occurs on steep mafic and calcareous sedimentary rock outcrops in the North Carolina and southern Virginia Piedmont.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The open canopy is dominated by Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana and Ulmus alata, with Acer rubrum var. rubrum and Pinus virginiana sharing dominance in those occurrences in which they are present. Oak species typically do not share dominance in this type. Other woody species include Chionanthus virginicus (= var. virginicus), Carya glabra, Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra var. rubra, Quercus prinus, Quercus nigra, Carya ovata, Carya pallida, Celtis occidentalis, Ostrya virginiana, Rhus copallinum, Vaccinium arboreum, Vaccinium pallidum, and Diospyros virginiana. The herbaceous stratum is usually dominated by Schizachyrium scoparium, although some of the Virginia stands are dominated by Carex pensylvanica and/or Danthonia spicata. Other common species in the herbaceous stratum include Asclepias verticillata, Symphyotrichum dumosum var. dumosum (= Aster dumosus var. dumosus), Asplenium platyneuron var. platyneuron, Bignonia capreolata, Campsis radicans, Cheilanthes lanosa, Cheilanthes tomentosa, Commelina erecta var. erecta, Danthonia sericea, Danthonia spicata, Dichanthelium depauperatum, Dichanthelium laxiflorum, Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon, Euphorbia corollata, Gamochaeta purpurea, Gelsemium sempervirens, Heuchera americana, Hypericum gentianoides, Hypericum hypericoides ssp. multicaule, Lespedeza virginica, Nuttallanthus canadensis, Oxalis dillenii, Packera spp., Pleopeltis polypodioides ssp. michauxiana (= Polypodium polypodioides var. michauxianum), Sedum glaucophyllum, Selaginella rupestris, Sorghastrum nutans, and Vitis rotundifolia. Species richness of nine plot-sampled Virginia stands ranges from 18 to 62 taxa per 100 square meters (mean = 41).


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This woodland occurs on steep rock outcrops of mafic rock and calcareous mudstone or siltstone in the North Carolina and southern Virginia Piedmont. Nine plot-sampled Virginia stands occupy middle- to upper-slope outcrops with a mean aspect of 281 (west-facing) and a mean slope inclination of 35. These sites have about 70% surface substrate cover of exposed bedrock, and soils have moderately high levels of calcium, magnesium, iron, and aluminum.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): R.K. Peet and A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 25Feb2010
Element Description Author(s): R.K. Peet, A.S. Weakley, G.P. Fleming
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 24Feb2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne, mod. G.P. Fleming

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009b. Classification of selected Virginia montane wetland groups. In-house analysis, December 2009. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schafale, Mike P. Personal communication. Ecologist, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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