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Quercus stellata - Quercus velutina / Morella pensylvanica / Deschampsia flexuosa Forest
Translated Name: Post Oak - Black Oak / Northern Bayberry / Wavy Hairgrass Forest
Common Name: North Atlantic Coast Maritime Post Oak Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006373
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This vegetation is a maritime oak forest of bluffs, sand spits, and salt marsh borders along the North Atlantic Coast. It is dominated by stunted, wind- and salt-pruned Quercus stellata, Quercus velutina, Quercus coccinea, and Quercus alba. Juniperus virginiana may contribute a minor cover to the canopy. A dense shrub layer is made up of Morella pensylvanica, Gaylussacia baccata, and Prunus serotina with a heavy component of vines such as Smilax rotundifolia, Toxicodendron radicans, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Vitis aestivalis. Herbaceous species are sparse and include Deschampsia flexuosa. Vegetation varies to a degree along topo-edaphic gradients.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group North Atlantic Maritime & Coastal Plain Forest
Alliance Maritime Oak - Beech - Holly Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Pinus rigida - Quercus stellata woodlands Undetermined   Metzler and Barrett 2001
Connecticut Coastal bluffs and headlands Undetermined   Metzler and Barrett 2001
Massachusetts Coastal Forest/Woodland Intersects   Swain and Kearsley 2001
Massachusetts Maritime Forest/Woodland Intersects   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Jersey Dry pine-oak forest Undetermined   Breden 1989
New York Maritime oak forest Equivalent   Edinger et al. 2002


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Pinus rigida - Quercus stellata woodlands
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford, CT.
Related Concept Name: Black Oak, Post Oak-Vine Maritime Strand Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Greller, A. M. 1977. A classification of mature forests on Long Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 104:376-382.
Related Concept Name: CNE Mesic hardwood Forest on acidic bedrock / till
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: Maritime Forest, Dune Subtype, Deciduous Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: Maritime forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: SNE Maritime Forest on Dunes/Maritime Juniper Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: SNE Maritime Forest on Uplands/Maritime Oak Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: Southern New England oak / pine forest on sandy / gravelly soils
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.302 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Maritime Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNR (01Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, MA, NJpotentially occurs, NY
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: Currently described from Long Island, New York, and Connecticut. It possibly occurs in New Jersey.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Possible
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This maritime oak forest is dominated by stunted, wind- and salt-pruned Quercus stellata, Quercus velutina, Quercus coccinea, and Quercus alba. Juniperus virginiana may contribute minor cover to the canopy. A dense shrub layer is made up of Morella pensylvanica (= Myrica pensylvanica), Gaylussacia baccata, and Prunus serotina with a heavy component of vines such as Smilax rotundifolia, Toxicodendron radicans, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Vitis aestivalis. Herbaceous species are sparse and include Deschampsia flexuosa. Vegetation varies to a degree along topo-edaphic gradients: a post oak-catbrier forest is the typical variety; a post oak-basswood variant occurs on dune sands atop morainal bluffs; and a post oak-blackjack oak variant occurs on reddish sandy clay loam ridges of Staten Island (Reschke et al. 2002).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus alba GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus coccinea GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus stellata GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus velutina GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Morella pensylvanica GNR Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Deschampsia flexuosa GNR Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This vegetation occurs on bluffs, sand spits, and salt marsh borders within 200 m of the seacoast.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This community is heavily influenced by maritime processes, especially salt spray and wind-pruning.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D. Hunt (NYNHP)
Element Description Edition Date: 09May2002
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Greller, A. M. 1977. A classification of mature forests on Long Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 104:376-382.

  • Hunt, D. 1997a. Long Island oak forest project: Classification justification. Unpublished materials. New York Natural Heritage Program, Latham, NY.

  • Klopfer, S. D., A. Olivero, L. Sneddon, and J. Lundgren. 2002. Final report of the NPS Vegetation Mapping Project at Fire Island National Seashore. Conservation Management Institute, GIS & Remote Sensing Division, College of Natural Resources, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA. 193 pp.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford, CT.

  • Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

  • Reschke, Carol. Personal communication. Ecologist, New York Natural Heritage Program. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2014. Classification of the natural communities of Massachusetts. Version 2.0. Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Westborough, MA. [http://www.mass.gov/nhesp/http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/natural-communities/classification-of-natural-communities.html]


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