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Scirpus cyperinus - Panicum rigidulum - Rhynchospora corniculata - (Dulichium arundinaceum) Marsh
Translated Name: Woolgrass - Redtop Panicgrass - Short-bristle Horned Beaksedge - (Threeway Sedge) Marsh
Common Name: Highland Rim Pond (Woolgrass Bulrush - Threeway Sedge Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL004719
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association is a component of emergent zones in upland depression ponds of the Interior Low Plateau of Kentucky, Tennessee, and possibly Indiana, as well as in the Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain and Piedmont ecoregions of Alabama. Stands may have a pronounced seasonal fluctuation in water level, becoming saturated to ponded in the winter and often drying completely in the summer. The vegetation is typically dominated by patches or zones of Scirpus cyperinus, possibly with thick mats of Dulichium arundinaceum. In addition to these, various Carex spp., Juncus coriaceus, Juncus effusus, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Panicum rigidulum, Rhynchospora spp., and scattered Itea virginica and Cephalanthus occidentalis are often found. Floristics and gradient expression vary with context and management. Some examples may have additional small trees and shrubs, such as Acer rubrum var. trilobum, Alnus serrulata, Hibiscus moscheutos, Liquidambar styraciflua, Nyssa biflora, Pinus taeda, Quercus phellos, and Rosa palustris scattered within. On drier ground (either surrounding the pond center or scattered about on hummocks), Scirpus cyperinus may share dominance with Panicum rigidulum var. elongatum and Rhynchospora corniculata. Some other herbaceous species which are present may include Andropogon virginicus, Carex bullata, Carex gigantea, Carex lurida, Calamagrostis coarctata, Dichanthelium dichotomum var. dichotomum, Dichanthelium longiligulatum, Dichanthelium scoparium, Eleocharis sp., Leersia hexandra, Ludwigia alternifolia, Ludwigia leptocarpa, Ludwigia palustris, Lycopus sp., Proserpinaca pectinata, Rhexia mariana, Rhynchospora chalarocephala, Rhynchospora corniculata, Rhynchospora glomerata, Rhynchospora perplexa, Saccharum baldwinii, Triadenum virginicum, Xyris laxifolia var. iridifolia, and Xyris smalliana. The vegetation may consist of monospecific clumps of the component species, which are present around the pond margin, or scattered on hummocks within. Zones or areas of deeper water may support floating aquatics, including Nymphaea odorata and Utricularia gibba.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This community provides important breeding habitat for amphibians. Originally described from the Eastern Highland Rim of Coffee and DeKalb counties, Tennessee. On Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee County, Tennessee, an example is known from a depression pond located on the former airfield. Mingo Pond, in Franklin County, Tennessee, is presumed to be an exemplary occurrence of this type. This type includes a sample from Talladega National Forest Survey (Oakmulgee Ranger District; 231Bc) August 2000 Survey (sample: 715 Beaver Ponds #1 and Pondville Butterfly Site #1).

In Indiana see Carex comosa - Carex decomposita - Dulichium arundinaceum - Lycopus rubellus Marsh (CEGL002413), a semipermanently flooded community of deeper sinkhole ponds; however, there is a pond that might fit the description of this type, though it has increased in woody cover somewhat in recent years, and would take some management to revert and fit the type, as it once did (M. Homoya pers. comm. 2000).


Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern-Southeastern North American Ruderal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Southeastern Ruderal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Alliance Southern Ruderal Graminoid Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002413 Carex comosa - Carex decomposita - Dulichium arundinaceum - Lycopus rubellus Marsh



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Scirpus cyperinus - Panicum rigidulum - Rhynchospora corniculata - (Dulichium arundinaceum) Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
Indiana Lake - pond sinkhole Broader   Homoya et al. 1988
Tennessee Scirpus cyperinus - Panicum rigidulum - Rhynchospora corniculata - (Dulichium arundinaceum) Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Scirpus cyperinus - Panicum rigidulum - Rhynchospora corniculata - (Dulichium arundinaceum) Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1998a. An investigation and assessment of the vegetation of Arnold Air Force Base. Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee. The Nature Conservancy, Tennessee Field Office, Nashville. 37 pp. plus appendices.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.018 Central Interior Highlands and Appalachian Sinkhole and Depression Pond


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2G3 (20Dec2000)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This seasonally flooded herbaceous association is found in the emergent zones of ponds in the Interior Low Plateau (Kentucky, Tennessee, and possibly Indiana), and in the Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain of Alabama. The total number of occurrences is not known. Many examples have been altered or destroyed, for example converted to farm ponds or affected by erosion from adjoining agricultural lands. Only a few extensive, high-quality examples remain. Remaining unprotected examples are vulnerable to damage from off-road vehicles, local hydrologic changes (ditching and draining), and land-use change (including housing development). Some examples are in areas of extensive human population growth, and the best hope for conservation is on public lands (e.g., natural areas, wildlife areas, military bases).

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, IN, KY, TN
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This herbaceous pond vegetation is found in the Interior Low Plateau region of the United States (Kentucky, Tennessee, and possibly Indiana), and in the Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain and Piedmont ecoregions of Alabama.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Highland Rim Section
Section Code: 222E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation is typically dominated by patches or zones of Scirpus cyperinus, possibly with thick mats of Dulichium arundinaceum. In addition to these, various Carex spp., Juncus coriaceus, Juncus effusus, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Panicum rigidulum, Rhynchospora spp., and scattered Itea virginica and Cephalanthus occidentalis are often found. Floristics and gradient expression vary with context and management. Some examples (Interior Low Plateau of Tennessee) may have additional small trees and shrubs, such as Hibiscus moscheutos, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus phellos, and Rosa palustris scattered within. The Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain (Alabama) example has Nyssa biflora, Alnus serrulata, Itea virginica, Liquidambar styraciflua, Pinus taeda and Acer rubrum var. trilobum as scattered woody plants. Scirpus cyperinus may share dominance with Panicum rigidulum var. elongatum and Rhynchospora corniculata on drier ground surrounding the pond center, or scattered about on hummocks. Zones or areas of deeper water may support floating aquatics, including Nymphaea odorata and Utricularia gibba. In more open examples (Tennessee), some other species present may include Xyris laxifolia var. iridifolia, Carex bullata, Carex gigantea, Carex lurida, Calamagrostis coarctata, Leersia hexandra, Rhynchospora corniculata, Rhynchospora glomerata, Rhynchospora perplexa, Andropogon virginicus, Dichanthelium scoparium, Dichanthelium dichotomum var. ramulosum, Dichanthelium longiligulatum, Saccharum baldwinii, and Proserpinaca pectinata. Some additional herbaceous species seen in the Alabama occurrence include Eleocharis sp., Ludwigia alternifolia, Ludwigia leptocarpa, Ludwigia palustris, Lycopus sp., Rhexia mariana, Rhynchospora chalarocephala, Triadenum virginicum, and Xyris smalliana. The vegetation may consist of monospecific clumps of the component species, which are present around the pond margin, or scattered clumps in examples with less clear zonation.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Dulichium arundinaceum G2 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Panicum rigidulum ssp. elongatum G2 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Rhynchospora corniculata G2 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Scirpus cyperinus G2 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Neonympha mitchellii mitchellii
  (Mitchell's Satyr)
G2T2 LE: Listed endangered


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association is a component of emergent zones in upland depression ponds of the Interior Low Plateau of Kentucky, Tennessee, and possibly Indiana, and in the Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain and Piedmont ecoregions of Alabama (where it is documented from a beaver pond on the Talladega National Forest and a temporarily flooded swale at Horseshoe Bend National Military Park). It may have a pronounced seasonal fluctuation in water level, becoming saturated to ponded in the winter and often drying completely in the summer.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Some examples of this association have a pronounced seasonal fluctuation in water level, becoming saturated to ponded in the winter and often drying completely in the summer. This community provides important breeding habitat for amphibians.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M. Pyne
Element Description Edition Date: 18Mar2008
Element Description Author(s): M. Pyne and H. Summer
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Dec2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Ellis, W. H., and E. W. Chester. 1989. Upland swamps of the Highland Rim of Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 64(3):97-101.

  • Homoya, M. A., J. Aldrich, J. Bacone, L. Casebere, and T. Post. 1988. Indiana natural community classification. Indiana Natural Heritage Program, Indianapolis, IN. Unpublished manuscript.

  • Homoya, Michael. Personal communication. Indiana Natural Heritage Data Center. Division of Nature Preserves, Department of Natural Resources, 402 West Washington Street, Room W267, Indianapolis, IN 46204. 317/232-4052. Personal communication with S. L. Neid, MRO, March/April, 1997.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Nordman, C., M. Russo, and L. Smart. 2011. Vegetation types of the Natchez Trace Parkway, based on the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. NatureServe Central Databases (International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications). Arlington, VA. Data current as of 11 April 2011. 548 pp.

  • Russo, M. J. 1997. Arnold Engineering Development Center preliminary community classification. Appendix to draft report to The Nature Conservancy, Tennessee Field Office, Nashville. 23 pp.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1998a. An investigation and assessment of the vegetation of Arnold Air Force Base. Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee. The Nature Conservancy, Tennessee Field Office, Nashville. 37 pp. plus appendices.


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