Standard Names for Vertebrates and Invertebrates
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 

Classification of Vertebrates and Invertebrates

NatureServe Explorer reports standard vertebrate and invertebrate names for particular taxon circumscriptions as defined by NatureServe zoologists who use a set of major references generally accepted by researchers working on a given taxonomic group. However, many of these major references are updated infrequently. Because taxonomy is a dynamic field, NatureServe zoologists review numerous journals and monographs each year for taxonomic and nomenclatural changes, and they may accept these changes before the major source(s) for each group are updated to reflect them. In addition, undescribed taxa of conservation concern (i.e., taxa for which scientific names have not yet been published) may be tracked in the NatureServe Central Databases. The process of incorporating taxonomic and nomenclatural updates from the most recent of these references into NatureServe’s databases is still ongoing.

Major References for Vertebrate and Invertebrate Names and Taxonomy Used for Animals in the Natural Heritage Network (December 2011)

Higher Taxonomy

Phyla and Subphyla:

  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Integrated Taxonomic Information System: Biological Names. Available online at: http://www.itis.gov.
  • Margulis, L., and K. V. Schwartz. 1998. Five kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth. Third edition. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York. 520 pp.
Phylum Craniata (Vertebrates)

Class Mammalia (Mammals)

  • American Society of Mammalogists. Mammalian species. Cumulative index available online: http://www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/VHAYSSEN/msi/default.html [ASM publishes 20-30 species accounts each year; each summarizes the current understanding of a species' biology.]
  • Baker, R. J., L. C. Bradley, R. D. Bradley, J. W. Dragoo, M. D. Engstrom, R. S. Hoffman, C. A. Jones, F. Reid, D. W. Rice, and C. Jones. 2003. Revised checklist of North American mammals north of Mexico, 2003. Museum of Texas Tech University Occasional Papers 229:1-23.
  • Da Fonseca, G., G. Herrmann, Y. Leite, R. Mittermeier, A. Rylands, and J. L. Patton. 1996. Lista anotada dos mamíferos do Brasil. Conservation International, Washington, D.C.
  • Hall, E. R. 1981. The Mammals of North America. Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York. [Used for North American mammal subspecies names, within the framework of the species classification of the major sources cited here.]
  • Reid, F. A. 1997. A field guide to the mammals of Central America and southern Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Wilson, D. E., and F. R. Cole. 2000. Common names of mammals of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Two volumes. 2,142 pp. Available online at: http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/.

Class Aves (Birds)

  • American Ornithologists’ Union. 1957. Checklist of North American birds. Fifth edition. Port City Press, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland. [Used for North American bird subspecies names, within the framework of the species classification in AOU checklist.]
  • American Ornithologists’ Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
  • The Birds of North American Online. Available at: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/BNA/. [subscription required]
  • Howard, R. and A. Moore. 2003. A complete checklist of the birds of the world. Third edition. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 1039 pp.
  • Remsen, J. V., Jr., A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, M. B. Robbins, T. S. Schulenberg, F. G. Stiles, J. M. C. da Silva, D. F. Stotz, and K. J. Zimmer. Version [11 November 2011]. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union. http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.

Classes Chelonia, Crocodylia, and Reptilia (Turtles, Crocodilians, and Reptiles)

  • Collins, J. T., S. L. Collins, and T. W. Taggart. 2010. Amphibians, reptiles, and turtles in Kansas. Eagle Mountain Publishing, Eagle Mountain, Utah. xvi +312 pp.
  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84.
  • Ernst, C. H., and R. W. Barbour. 1989. Turtles of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
  • Ernst, C. H., R. W. Barbour, and J. E. Lovich. 1994. Turtles of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
  • Ernst, C. H., and E. M. Ernst. 2003. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C.
  • Iverson, J. B. 1992. A revised checklist with distribution maps of the turtles of the world. Privately printed, Earlham, Indiana.
  • King, F. W., and R. L. Burke, editors. 1989. Crocodilian, tuatara, and turtle species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Association of Systematics Collections, Washington, D.C. 216 pp.
  • McDiarmid, R. W., J. A. Campbell, and T. A. Touré. 1999. Snake species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Volume 1. The Herpetologists' League, Washington, D.C.
  • Schwartz, A., and R.W. Henderson. 1988. West Indian amphibians and reptiles: a check-list. Milwaukee Public Museum, Contributions in Biology and Geology. No. 74:1-264. [Major source for West Indian reptiles]
  • Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 1971 et seq. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. (Published by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 1963-1970.)
  • Stebbins, R. C. 2003. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

Class Amphibia (Amphibians)

  • Collins, J. T., S. L. Collins, and T. W. Taggart. 2010. Amphibians, reptiles, and turtles in Kansas. Eagle Mountain Publishing, Eagle Mountain, Utah. xvi + 312 pp.
  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84.
  • Frost, D. R. 2010. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.4 (8 April 2010). Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php.
  • American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Petranka, J. W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
  • Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 1971 et seq. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. (Published by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 1963-1970.)
  • Stebbins, R. C. 2003. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

Classes Myxini, Cephalaspidomorphi, Elasmobranchii, Holocephali, Actinopterygii, and Sarcopterygii (Fishes)

  • Eschmeyer, W. N., editor. Catalog of fishes. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. Online. Available: http://research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp.
  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh. [Used for North American fish subspecies names, within the framework of the species classification of the major source above.]
  • Lee, D. S., S. P. Platania, and G. H. Burgess. 1983. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. 1983 supplement. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh.
  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Sixth edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 29.
  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin, New York.
  • Nelson, J. S. 2006. Fishes of the world. Fourth edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. xix + 601 pp. [Used for higher taxonomy]
Freshwater Invertebrates (general)
  • Merritt, R. W. and K. W. Cummins. 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. Third Edition. Kendall/ Hunt Publishing Company: Dubuque, Iowa. 862 pp.
  • Smith, D. G. 2001. Pennak’s freshwater invertebrates of the United States. Fourth edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 638 pp.
  • Thorp, J. H. and A. P. Covich (eds.). 2001. Ecology and classification of North American freshwater invertebrates. Second edition. Academic Press, California. 1056 pp.

Phylum Mollusca

  • Cowie, R. H. 1998. Catalog and bibliography of the nonindigenous nonmarine snails and slugs of the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 50: 1-66.
  • Cowie, R. H., N. L. Evenhuis, and C. C. Christensen. 1995. Catalog of the native land and freshwater molluscs of the Hawaiian Islands. Backhuys Publications, Leiden, Netherlands. 248 pp.
  • Hawaii Biological Survey Web Site. Available: http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/.
  • Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, P. M. Mikkelsen, R. J. Neves, C. F. E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F. G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J. D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. Second edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26: 1-509.

Phylum Cnidaria

  • Cairns, S. D., D. R. Calder, A. Brinckmann-Voss, C. B. Castro, D. G. Fautin, P. R. Pugh, C. E. Mills, W. C. Jaap, M. N. Arai, S. H. D. Haddock, and D. M. Opresko. 2002. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Second edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, 28: 1-115.

Phylum Ctenophora

  • Cairns, S. D., D. R. Calder, A. Brinckmann-Voss, C. B. Castro, D. G. Fautin, P. R. Pugh, C. E. Mills, W. C. Jaap, M. N. Arai, S. H. D. Haddock, and D. M. Opresko. 2002. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Second edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, 28: 1-115.

Phylum Crustacea

Freshwater crustaceans other than those groups listed below:

  • Fitzpatrick, J. F. Jr. 1983. How to know the freshwater Crustacea. Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers, Iowa. [Used as a source for names of non-decapod crustaceans]
  • McLaughlin, P.A., D.K. Camp, M.V. Angel, E.L. Bousfield, P. Brunel, R.C. Brusca, D. Cadien, A.C. Cohen, K. Conlan, L.G. Eldredge, D.L. Felder, J.W. Goy, T. Haney, B. Hann, R.W. Heard, E.A. Hendrycks, H.H. Hobbs III, J.R. Holsinger, B. Kensley, D.R. Laubitz, S.E. LeCroy, R. Lemaitre, R.F. Maddocks, J.W. Martin, P. Mikkelsen, E. Nelson, W.A. Newman, R.M. Overstreet, W.J. Poly, W.W. Price, J.W. Reid, A. Robertson, D.C. Rogers, A. Ross, M. Schotte, F. Schram, C. Shih, L. Watling, G.D.F. Wilson, and D.D. Turgeon. 2005. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Crustaceans. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 31: 545 pp.

Class Malacostraca, Order Decapoda (Crayfishes and other decapods)

  • Belk, D. 1975. Key to the Anostraca (fairy shrimps) of North America. The Southwestern Naturalist 20(1); 91-103.
  • Crayfish Home Page: Brigham Young University. Available: http://crayfish.byu.edu.
  • Hobbs, H. H., Jr. 1989. An illustrated checklist of the American crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae, Cambaridae & Parastacidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 480: 1-236.
  • McLaughlin, P.A., D.K. Camp, M.V. Angel, E.L. Bousfield, P. Brunel, R.C. Brusca, D. Cadien, A.C. Cohen, K. Conlan, L.G. Eldredge, D.L. Felder, J.W. Goy, T. Haney, B. Hann, R.W. Heard, E.A. Hendrycks, H.H. Hobbs III, J.R. Holsinger, B. Kensley, D.R. Laubitz, S.E. LeCroy, R. Lemaitre, R.F. Maddocks, J.W. Martin, P. Mikkelsen, E. Nelson, W.A. Newman, R.M. Overstreet, W.J. Poly, W.W. Price, J.W. Reid, A. Robertson, D.C. Rogers, A. Ross, M. Schotte, F. Schram, C. Shih, L. Watling, G.D.F. Wilson, and D.D. Turgeon. 2005. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Crustaceans. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 31: 545 pp.

Class Branchiopoda (e.g., Fairy, Clam, and Tadpole Shrimps)

  • Braband, A., S. Richter, R. Hiesel, and G. Scholtz. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships within the Phyllopoda (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 25: 229-244.
  • Hoeh, W.R., N.D. Smallwood, D.M. Senyo, E.G. Chapman, and S.C. Weeks. 2006. Evaluating the monophyly of Eulimnadia and the Limnadiinae (Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata) using DNA sequences. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 26(2): 182-192.
  • Jass, J. and B. Klausmeier. 2000. Atlas and bibliography of the first state and county records for anostracans (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of the contiguous United States. Contributions in Biology and Geology, Milwaukee Public Museum 94: 1-158.
  • McLaughlin, P.A., D.K. Camp, M.V. Angel, E.L. Bousfield, P. Brunel, R.C. Brusca, D. Cadien, A.C. Cohen, K. Conlan, L.G. Eldredge, D.L. Felder, J.W. Goy, T. Haney, B. Hann, R.W. Heard, E.A. Hendrycks, H.H. Hobbs III, J.R. Holsinger, B. Kensley, D.R. Laubitz, S.E. LeCroy, R. Lemaitre, R.F. Maddocks, J.W. Martin, P. Mikkelsen, E. Nelson, W.A. Newman, R.M. Overstreet, W.J. Poly, W.W. Price, J.W. Reid, A. Robertson, D.C. Rogers, A. Ross, M. Schotte, F. Schram, C. Shih, L. Watling, G.D.F. Wilson, and D.D. Turgeon. 2005. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Crustaceans. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 31: 545 pp.
  • Murugan, G., A.M. Maeda-Martinez, H. Obregon-Barboza, and N.Y. Hernandez-Saavedra, 2002. Molecular characterization of the tadpole shrimp Triops (Branchiopoda: Notostraca) from the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico: New insights on species diversity and phylogeny of the genus. Studies on Large Branchiopod Biology, Hydrobiologia, 486: 101-113.
  • Rogers, D.C. 2002. A morphological re-evaluation of the anostracan families Linderiellidae and Polyartemiidae, with a redescription of the linderiellid Dexteria floridana (Dexter 1956) (Crustacea: Branchiopoda). Hydrobiologia, 486: 57-61.
  • Rogers, D.C. 2003. Revision of the thamnocephalid genus Phallocryptus (Crustacea; Branchiopoda; Anostraca). Zootaxa 257: 1-14.
  • Rogers, D.C. 2006. A genus level revision of the Thamnocephalidae (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca). Zootaxa, 1260: 1-25.

Phylum Chelicerata

Order Araneae (Spiders)

  • Platnick, N. I. 2010b. The world spider catalog, version 11. American Museum of Natural History. Online. Available: http://research.amnh.org/iz/spiders/catalog/.
  • Paquin, P., D. J. Buckle, N. Duperre, and C. D. Dondale. 2010. Checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of Canada and Alaska. Zootaxa 2461:1-170.

Phylum Mandibulata (insects, centipedes, millipedes)

Groups not covered by other sources listed below:

  • Arnett, R. H. 2000. American insects: A handbook of the insects of America north of Mexico. Second edition. CRC Press, New York.
  • Nishida, G. M. editor. 2002. Hawaiian terrestrial arthropod checklist. Fourth edition. Bishop Museum Technical Report 22: iv + 310 p. Available online: http://www2.bishopmuseum.org/HBS/checklist/query.asp?grp=Arthropod.
  • Poole, R. W., and P. Gentili (eds.). 1996-1997. Nomina Insecta Nearctica. A checklist of the insects of North America. Entomological Information Services, Rockville, MD. Four volumes. Available online: http://www.nearctica.com/nomina/main.htm.

Order Coleoptera

      General

  • Arnett, R.H., Jr., and M.C. Thomas. 2000. American beetles. Volume 1: Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida. 443 pp. [Used for higher taxonomy through family and subfamily, excluding Cicindelidae]
  • Arnett, R.H., Jr., M.C. Thomas, P.E. Skelley, and J.H. Frank. 2002. American beetles. Volume 2: Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida. 861 pp. [Used for higher taxonomy through family and subfamily, excluding Cicindelidae]

Family Cicindelidae (Tiger Beetles)

  • Freitag, R. 1999. Catalogue of the tiger beetles of Canada and the United States. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0R6.
  • Pearson, D. L. 2004. A list of suggested common English names for species of tiger beetles occurring in Canada and the U.S. Cicindela 36(1-2):31-40. [Used for North American common names]
  • Pearson, D. L., C. B. Knisley and C. J. Kazilek. 2006. A field guide to the tiger beetles of the United States and Canada: identification, natural history, and distribution of the Cicindelidae. Oxford University Press, New York, New York. 227 pp.

Order Ephemeroptera (Mayflies)

  • Purdue University Department of Entomology (W.P. McCafferty ed.) 1995. Last updated 8 March 2010. Mayfly Central- The Mayflies of North America. Online. Available: http://www.entm.purdue.edu/mayfly/.

Order Hymenoptera, Family Formicidae (Ants)

  • Bolton, B., G. Alpert, P. S. Ward, and P. Naskrecki. 2006. Bolton's catalogue of ants of the world 1785-2005. President and Fellows of Harvard College, Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA. CD-ROM.
  • Fisher, B. L. and S. P. Cover. 2007. Ants of North America. A guide to the genera. University of California Press. 308 pp.

Order Hymenoptera, Superfamily Apoidea (Bees and Sphecoid Wasps), Apiformes (Bees)

    Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). 2009. World Bee Checklist Project (version 09-Dec-2009). Integrated Taxonomic Information System: Biological Names. Online. Available: http://www.itis.gov/beechecklist.html.
  • Michener, C. D. 2000. The bees of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD. [Used for higher taxonomy through genus and subgenus, excluding species in genus Bombus.]
  • Williams, P. H. 2008. Bombus, bumblebees of the world. Web pages based on Williams, P.H. 1998. An annotated checklist of bumblebees with an analysis of patterns of description (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini). Bulletin of the Natural History Museum (Entomology) 67:79-152. Online. Available: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/bombus/index.html.

Order Diplura

  • Allen, R. T. 2002. A synopsis of the Diplura of North America: keys to higher taxa, systematics, distributions and descriptions of new taxa (Arthropoda: Insecta). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 128(4):403-466.

Order Lepidoptera (Default for taxa not covered by more current revisions, also followed for many Geometridae):

  • Hodges, R. W., T. Dominick, D. R. Davis, D. C. Ferguson. J. C. Franclemont, E. C. Munroe, and J. A. Powell, Eds. 1983. Check list of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E. W. Classey Lmtd. and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, Washington, D.C.
  • Wagner 2005: Wagner, D. L. 2005. Caterpillars of Eastern North America: A Guide to Identification and Natural History. Princeton University Press. 512 pp.
  • Schweitzer, D. F., M. C. Minno, and D. L. Wagner. 2011. Rare, Declining, and Poorly Known Butterflies and Moths (Lepidoptera) of Forests and Woodlands in the Eastern United States. USFS Technology Transfer Bulletin, FHTET-2011-01. ca. 500 pp. (especially useful for circumscriptions of unnamed species)

Order Lepidoptera, Superfamilies Papilionoidea (True Butterflies) and Hesperioidea (Skippers)

  • Cassie, B., J. Glassberg, A. Swengel and G. Tudor. 2001. North American Butterfly Association (NABA) checklist and English names of North American butterflies. North American Butterfly Association, Morristown, NJ. 41 pp. Online. Available: http://www.naba.org/pubs/checklst.html. [Used only for English common names.]
  • Emmel, T. C., ed. 1998. Systematics of western butterflies. Mariposa Press, Gainesville, Florida. [Source for many subspecies names and circumscriptions.]
  • Layberry, R. A., P. W. Hall, and J. D. Lafontaine. 1998. The butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2004. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp. [Source for almost all NatureServe species concepts for North American butterflies and skippers]
  • Opler, P. A., and A. B. Wright. 1999. Western butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. [Used for English common names. This list mostly follows Cassie et al.]
  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp.

Order Lepidoptera, Superfamily Geometroidea

  • Ferguson, D. C. 1985. Geometroidea, Geometridae (Part): Fascicle 18.1: Geometrinae. The Moths of America North of Mexico (Lepidoptera). E. W. Classey Ltd. and R. B. D. Publications, London, England. 153 pp.
  • Ferguson, D.C. 2008. Moths of America North of Mexico. Fascicle 17.2. Geometroidea, Geometridae, Ennominae (part: Abaxini, Cassymini, Macariini). The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation. 430 pp.
  • Scoble, M. J. (ed.), M. S. Parsons, M. R. Honey, L. M. Pitkin, and B. R. Pitkin. 1999. Geometrid moths of the world: a catalogue. Volumes 1 and 2: 1016 pp. + index 129 pp. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia. (Not followed for Macariini.)
  • Wagner, D. L., D. C. Ferguson, T. L. McCabe, and R. C. Reardon. 2001. Geometroid Caterpillars of Northeastern and Appalachian Forests. USDS, Forest Service, Forest Health and Technology Transfer Team FHTET-2001-10. 239 pp.

Order Lepidoptera, Families Saturniidae (Giant Silk Moths) and Sphingidae (Sphinx Moths)

  • Opler, P. A. 1995. Lepidoptera of North America: 1. Distribution of silkmoths (Saturniidae) and hawkmoths (Sphingidae) of eastern North America. Contributions of the C. P. Gillette Insect Biodiversity Museum, Department of Entomology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.
  • Peigler, R. S., and P. A. Opler. 1993. Moths of western North America: 1. Distribution of Saturniidae of western North America. Contributions of the C. P. Gillette Insect Biodiversity Museum, Department of Entomology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.
  • Smith, M. J. 1993. Moths of western North America: 2. Distribution of Sphingidae of western North America. Contributions of the C. P. Gillette Insect Biodiversity Museum, Department of Entomology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.
  • Tuskes, P. M., J. P. Tuttle, and M. M. Collins. 1996. The wild silk moths of North America. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
  • Tuttle, J. P. 2007. The hawk moths of North America: A natural history study of the Sphingidae of the United States and Canada. The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, Washington, D. C. 253 pp. +23 plates.

Order, Lepidoptera, Family Erebidae, Subfamily Lymantriinae (Tussock Moths)

  • Ferguson, D.C. 1978. The Moths of America North of Mexico. Fascicle 22.2: Noctuoidea, Lymantriidae. Curwen Press, London

Order Lepidoptera, Family Erebidae, Subfamily Arctiinae (Tiger Moths)

  • Ferguson, D. C. 1996. Checklist of the Arctiidae of the United States and Canada. Systematics Entomology Laboratory, U.S.D.A., unpublished manuscript, Washington D.C. 16 pp.
  • Ferguson, D. C., P. A. Opler, M. J. Smith, and J. P. Donahue. 2000. Moths of Western North America 3: Distribution of Arctiidae of Western North America. Part 1. Text, maps, and references. Contributions of the C. P. Gillette Arthropod Biodiversity Museum, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 170 pp.
  • Schmidt, B.C. and P.A. Opler. 2008. Revised checklist of the tiger moths of the Continental United States and Canada. Zootaxa 1677:1-23.

Order Lepidoptera, Family Erebidae, Genus Catocala (Underwing Moths)

  • Gall, L. F. and D.C. Hawks. 1990. Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). I. Type material in the Strecker collection, with lectotype designations. Fieldiana, Zoology New Series no. 59, Publication # 1414 Field Museum of Natural History. 16 pp.
  • Gall, L. F. and D.C. Hawks. 2002. Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). III. The types of William H. Edwards, Augustus R. Grote, and Achille Gunenee, with lectotype designations. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 56(4):234-264.
  • Gall, L. F., and D. C. Hawks. 2010. Systematics of moths in the genus Catocala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) IV. Nomenclatorial stabilization of the Nearctic fauna, with a revised synonymic check list. In: Schmidt B.C, Lafontaine J.D (Eds). Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths II. ZooKeys 39:37-83.

Order Lepidoptera, Family Noctuidae, Genus Papaipema (Papaipema Moths) and related mostly undescribed genera (mainly cane borers)

  • Eric L. Quinter, P.O. Box 74, Willimantic, CT 06266-0074
  • Quinter, E. L. in Hodges, R. W., T. Dominick, D. R. Davis, D. C. Ferguson. J. C. Franclemont, E. C. Munroe, and J. A. Powell, Eds. 1983. Check list of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E. W. Classey Lmtd. and The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, Washington, D.C.

Order Lepidoptera, Families Erebidae, Noctuidae, and other noctuoid families general.

  • Fibiger, M. and J. D. Lafontaine. 2005. A review of the higher classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera) with special reference to the Holarctic fauna. Esperiana Buchreihe zur Entomologie 11:7-690.
  • Forbes, W. T.M. F, 1954. The Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states, part III, Noctuidae. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, Ithaca, NY. Mem. 329. [no longer useful for genera but still very useful for species concepts and circumscriptions]
  • Lafontaine, J.D. 2004. Moths of America North of Mexico, Fascicle 27.1 Noctuoidea, Noctuidae (Noctuinae part: Agrotini). 385 pp., 75 plates.
  • Lafontaine, J.D. and Fibiger, M. 2006. Revised higher classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Canadian Entomologist 138: 610–635.
  • Lafontaine, J. D. and R. W. Poole. 1991. Noctuoidea, Noctuidae: Fascicle 25.1: Plusiinae. The Moths of America North of Mexico (Lepidoptera). E. W. Classey Ltd. and R. B. D. Publications, London, England. 182 pp.
  • LaFontaine, J. D. 1998. Noctuidea, Noctuidae (part-Noctuini). In Dominick, R.B. et al. The Moths of America North of Mexico. Fascicle 27.3. The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation. 348 pp.
  • Lafontaine, J. D. 1987. Noctuoidea, Noctuidae (Part): Fascicle 27.2: Noctuinae (Part-Euxoa). The Moths of America North of Mexico (Lepidoptera). E. W. Classey Ltd. and R. B. D. Publications, London, England. 237 pp.
  • Lafontaine, J. D, and B. C. Schmidt. 2010. Annotated check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico. ZooKeys 40:1-239.(used for almost all classification above and most at or below genus level).Poole, R. W. 1994. Noctuoidea, Noctuidae: Fascicle 26.1: Cuculliniinae, Stiriinae, Psaphidinae (Part). The Moths of America North of Mexico (Lepidoptera). E. W. Classey Ltd. and R. B. D. Publications, London, England. 250 pp.
  • Poole, Robert W., 1989. Lepidopterorum Catalogus (new series) Fascicle 118: Noctuidae. E.J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands. 1314 pp in 3 volumes.
  • Wagner, D. L., D. F. Schweitzer, J. B. Sullivan, and R. C. Reardon. 2011. Owlet Caterpillars of Eastern North America (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Princeton University Press. 576 pp.

Order Odonata (Dragonflies and Damselflies)

  • Abbott, J.C. 2007. Last updated 2011. OdonataCentral. The University of Texas at Austin, School of Biological Sciences, Section of Integrative Biology. Available at: http://www.odonatacentral.org/.
  • Kondratieff, B.C. (coordinator). 2000. Last updated 12 December 2003. Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata) of the United States. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. Available: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/insects/dfly/index.htm.
  • Needham, J. G., M. J. Westfall, Jr. and M. L. May. 2000. Dragonflies of North America. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, Florida.
  • Nishida, G.M., editor. 2002. Last updated - 9 April 2002. Bishop Museum - Hawaiian arthropod checklist. Online. Available: http://www2.bishopmuseum.org/HBS/checklist/query.asp?grp=Arthropod.
  • Paulson, D.R., and S.W. Dunkle. 2011. A checklist of North American Odonata including English name, etymology, type locality, and distribution. Originally published as Occasional Paper No. 56, Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, June 1999; completely revised March 2009; updated February 2011. Online. Available: http://odonatacentral.org/docs/NA_Odonata_Checklist_2011.pdf.
  • Westfall, M. J., Jr., and M. L. May. 2006. Damselflies of North America, revised edition. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, Florida. 503 pp.

Order Orthoptera (Grasshoppers, Katydids, Crickets)

  • Capinera, J. L., R. D. Scott, and T. J. Walker. 2004. Field guide to grasshoppers, katydids and crickets of the United States. Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 249 pp.
  • Eades, D.C., D. Otte. 2006. Orthoptera Species File Online. Version 2.0/3.4. Online. Available: http://osf2.orthoptera.org/HomePage.aspx.
  • Otte, D. 1981. The North American Grasshoppers. Volume 1. Acrididae. Gomphocerinae and Acridinae. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • Otte, D. 1984. The North American Grasshoppers. Volume 2. Oedipodinae. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • Otte, D. 1994-1995. Orthoptera Species File. Volumes 2-5 (Grasshoppers: Acridomorpha). The Orthopterists' Society and the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. v
  • Otte, Daniel. Department of Entomology, The Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, PA 19103.

Order Plecoptera (Stoneflies)

  • Stark, B.P., R.W. Baumann, and R.E. DeWalt. 1996. Valid stonefly names for North American. Last updated 19 March 2009. Online. Available: http://plsa.inhs.uiuc.edu/plecoptera/validnames.aspx.
  • Stark, B.P. and B.J. Armitage (eds.). 2000. Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of eastern North America. Volume 1. Pteronarcyidae, Peltoperlidae, and Taeniopterygidae. Bulletin of the Ohio Biological Survey New Series, 14(1): 1-99.
  • Stark, B.P. and B.J. Armitage (eds.). 2004. Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Eastern North America. Volume II. Chloroperlidae, Perlidae, and Perlodidae (Perlodinae). Ohio Biological Survey Bulletin New Series, 14: 1-192.
  • Stewart, K.W. and M.W. Oswood. 2006. The Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Alaska and Western Canada. The Caddis Press: Columbus, Ohio. 325 pp.

Order Trichoptera (Caddisflies)

 

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